تحليل دورة الوقت الفوركس الفوركس التقويم التفوق التحليل الفني الفوركس باللغة الأردية استراتيجيات التداول تجمع الظلام الخيار ثنائي الخيار الرقمي آسيوية فوركس جلسات الجلسة
نظام الاتحاد الأوروبي لتجارة الانبعاثات (الاتحاد الأوروبي إتس)
وأوضح نظام الاتحاد الأوروبي لتجارة الانبعاثات.
ويعتبر نظام االتحاد األوروبي لتداول االنبعاثات) إيتس (حجر الزاوية في سياسة االتحاد األوروبي لمكافحة تغير المناخ وأداة رئيسية للحد من انبعاثات غازات الدفيئة من حيث التكلفة. هذا هو أول سوق الكربون الرئيسي في العالم ولا يزال أكبر واحد.
تعمل في 31 دولة (جميع دول الاتحاد الأوروبي البالغ عددها 28 دولة بالإضافة إلى أيسلندا وليختنشتاين والنرويج) تحد من الانبعاثات من أكثر من 11،000 منشأة تستخدم الطاقة الثقيلة (محطات توليد الكهرباء والمنشآت الصناعية) وتغطي شركات الطيران العاملة بين هذه البلدان حوالي 45٪ من غازات الدفيئة في الاتحاد الأوروبي الانبعاثات.
للحصول على نظرة عامة مفصلة، انظر:
A 'كاب والتجارة' النظام.
تعمل إتس الاتحاد الأوروبي على مبدأ "الحد والتجارة".
يتم تحديد سقف على إجمالي كمية غازات الدفيئة معينة التي يمكن أن تنبعث من المنشآت التي يغطيها النظام. ويتم تخفيض الحد الأقصى بمرور الوقت بحيث ينخفض إجمالي الانبعاثات.
وفي إطار الحد الأقصى، تتلقى الشركات أو تشتري بدلات الانبعاثات التي يمكن أن تتاجر بها مع بعضها البعض حسب الحاجة. ويمكنهم أيضا شراء كميات محدودة من القروض الدولية من مشاريع إنقاذ الانبعاثات في جميع أنحاء العالم. ويضمن الحد الأقصى لعدد البدلات المتاحة أن يكون لها قيمة.
وبعد كل سنة، يجب على الشركة أن تسلم ما يكفي من البدلات لتغطية جميع انبعاثاتها، وإلا فرضت غرامات كبيرة. وإذا خفضت الشركة انبعاثاتها، فإنها يمكن أن تحتفظ بدلات احتياطية لتغطية احتياجاتها المستقبلية أو أن تبيعها إلى شركة أخرى تقل عن المخصصات.
فالتجارة تجلب المرونة التي تضمن خفض الانبعاثات حيث تكلف أقل من ذلك. كما يعزز سعر الكربون القوي الاستثمار في التكنولوجيات النظيفة والمنخفضة الكربون.
الملامح الرئيسية للمرحلة 3 (2018-2020)
وقد أصبح الاتحاد الأوروبي للاتصالات الأوروبية الآن في مرحلته الثالثة - يختلف كثيرا عن المرحلتين 1 و 2.
التغييرات الرئيسية هي:
يتم تطبيق سقف واحد على مستوى الاتحاد الأوروبي على الانبعاثات بدلا من النظام السابق للقبعات الوطنية يعتبر المزاد هو الطريقة الافتراضية لتخصيص البدلات (بدلا من التخصيص المجاني)، وتنطبق قواعد التوزيع المنسقة على البدلات التي لا تزال تمنح مجانا. تضمنت الغازات 300 مليون بدلات خصصت في احتياطي المشردين الجدد لتمويل نشر تكنولوجيات مبتكرة للطاقة المتجددة واحتجاز الكربون وتخزينه من خلال برنامج 300 نر.
القطاعات والغازات المشمولة.
ويغطي النظام القطاعات والغازات التالية مع التركيز على الانبعاثات التي يمكن قياسها والإبلاغ عنها والتحقق منها بمستوى عال من الدقة:
من ثاني أكسيد الكربون (CO2) من قطاعات توليد الطاقة والطاقة الحرارية كثيفة الاستخدام للطاقة بما في ذلك مصافي النفط والأعمال الحديدية وإنتاج الحديد والألمنيوم والمعادن والاسمنت والجير والزجاج والسيراميك ولب الورق والورق والكرتون والأحماض والمواد الكيميائية العضوية السائبة أكسيد النيتروز التجاري (N 2 O) من إنتاج أحماض النيتريك والأديبيك والجليوكسيليك ومركبات الكربون الهيدروكلورية فلورية غليوكسال (بكس) من إنتاج الألومنيوم.
المشاركة في إتس الاتحاد الأوروبي إلزامية للشركات في هذه القطاعات، ولكن.
في بعض القطاعات فقط النباتات فوق حجم معين يتم تضمين بعض المنشآت الصغيرة يمكن استبعادها إذا وضعت الحكومات تدابير مالية أو غيرها من شأنها أن خفض انبعاثاتها من قبل ما يعادلها في قطاع الطيران، حتى عام 2018 ينطبق إتس الاتحاد الأوروبي فقط على الرحلات الجوية بين المطارات الواقعة في المنطقة الاقتصادية الأوروبية (إيا).
تقديم تخفيضات في الانبعاثات.
وقد أثبتت إتس الاتحاد الأوروبي أن وضع سعر على الكربون والتداول في ذلك يمكن أن تعمل. وتنخفض الانبعاثات من المنشآت في المخطط حسب الغرض - بنحو 5٪ مقارنة مع بداية المرحلة 3 (2018) (انظر أرقام 2018).
وفي عام 2020، ستكون الانبعاثات من القطاعات التي يغطيها النظام أقل بنسبة 21 في المائة عما كانت عليه في عام 2005.
تطوير سوق الكربون.
أنشئت في عام 2005، والاتحاد الأوروبي إتس هو أول وأكبر نظام دولي للانبعاثات الانبعاثات في العالم، وهو ما يمثل أكثر من ثلاثة أرباع التجارة الدولية للكربون.
كما تلهم إتس الاتحاد الأوروبي تطوير تجارة الانبعاثات في بلدان ومناطق أخرى. ويهدف الاتحاد الأوروبي إلى ربط إتس الاتحاد الأوروبي مع أنظمة أخرى متوافقة.
التشريعات الرئيسية للاتحاد الأوروبي بشأن التجارة الإلكترونية.
30/04/2018 - نسخة موحدة من التوجيه 2003/87 / إيك للبرلمان الأوروبي والمجلس الذي ينشئ خطة لتداول بدل انبعاث غازات الدفيئة داخل الجماعة وتعديل توجيه المجلس رقم 96/61 / إيك 23/04/2009 - التوجيه رقم 2009/29 / إيك الصادر عن البرلمان الأوروبي والمجلس الأوروبي المعدل للتوجيه 2003/87 / إيك من أجل تحسين وتوسيع نطاق خطة تداول بدل غازات الدفيئة في الجماعة 19/11/2008 - التوجيه 2008/101 / إيك والبرلمان الأوروبي والمجلس الذي يعدل التوجيه 2003/87 / إيك بحيث يشمل أنشطة الطيران في مخطط تداول بدل غازات الدفيئة داخل الجماعة 27/10/2004 - الأمر التوجيهي 2004/101 / إيك الصادر عن البرلمان الأوروبي و المجلس الذي يعدل التوجيه 2003/87 / إيك الذي ينشئ خطة لتداول بدل انبعاث غازات الدفيئة داخل الجماعة فيما يتعلق بآليات مشروع بروتوكول كيوتو 13/10/2003 - الأمر التوجيهي 2003/87 / إيك الصادر عن البرلمان الأوروبي والاتحاد الأوروبي نيل التي تضع مخططا لتداول بدل انبعاث غازات الدفيئة داخل الجماعة وتعديل توجيه المجلس 96/61 / إيك.
تقارير سوق الكربون.
23/11/2017 - كوم (2017) 693 - تقرير عن أداء سوق الكربون الأوروبي 01/02/2017 - كوم (2017) 48 - تقرير عن أداء سوق الكربون الأوروبي 18/11/2018 - كوم 2018) 576 - تقرير عن أداء سوق الكربون الأوروبي 14/11/2018 - كوم (2018) 652 - حالة سوق الكربون الأوروبي في عام 2018.
تنقيح إتس للاتحاد الأوروبي للمرحلة 3.
04/02/2018 - استنتاجات المجلس الأوروبي المؤرخة 4 شباط / فبراير 2018 (انظر الاستنتاجين 23 و 24) 18/03/2018 - إرشادات بشأن تفسير المرفق الأول لتوجيه الاتحاد الأوروبي بشأن التجارة الإلكترونية (باستثناء أنشطة الطيران) 18/03/2018 - إرشادات ورقة تعريفية لمولدات الكهرباء 06/04/2009 - بيان صحفي صادر عن المجلس حول اعتماد مجموعة المناخ والطاقة 12/12/2008 - استنتاجات رئاسة المجلس الأوروبي (11 و 12 ديسمبر 2008) 12/12/2008 - المجلس الأوروبي بيان بشأن استخدام عائدات المزادات 23/01/2008 - اقتراح بتوجيه من البرلمان الأوروبي والمجلس بتعديل التوجيه 2003/87 / إيك من أجل تحسين وتوسيع نظام تداول بدل غازات الدفيئة في المجتمع 23 / 01/2008 - وثيقة عمل موظفي اللجنة - وثيقة مصاحبة للاقتراح الخاص بتوجيه للبرلمان الأوروبي والمجلس المعدل للتوجيه 2003/87 / إيك من أجل تحسين وتوسيع نطاق نظام تداول بدل انبعاثات غازات الاحتباس الحراري في الاتحاد الأوروبي - تقييم الأثر.
04/07/2018 - مشروع لائحة تنظيمية بشأن تحديد الاستحقاقات الائتمانية الدولية 05/06/2018 - مشروع لائحة بشأن تحديد استحقاقات الائتمان الدولي 05/05/2018 لائحة المفوضية رقم الاتحاد الأوروبي رقم 389/2018 بتاريخ 2 مايو 2018 بشأن إنشاء السجل الاتحادي إلى التوجيه رقم 2003/87 / إيك الصادر عن البرلمان الأوروبي والمجلس الأوروبي، والمرسومين رقم 280/2004 / إيك رقم 406/2009 / إيك للبرلمان الأوروبي والمجلس الأوروبي، وإلغاء لائحة المفوضية الأوروبية رقم 920/2018 و لا 1193/2018 نص ذو صلة بالمنطقة الاقتصادية الأوروبية 18/11/2018 - لائحة اللجنة التي تنشئ سجل الاتحاد لفترة التداول التي تبدأ في 1 يناير 2018 وفترات التداول اللاحقة من مخطط الإتجار في الانبعاثات بالاتحاد وفقا للتوجيه 2003/87 / إيك والبرلمان الأوروبي والمجلس، والمقرر 280/2004 / إيك الصادر عن البرلمان الأوروبي والمجلس الأوروبي، وتعديل اللائحة التنفيذية رقم 2216/2004 والاتحاد الأوروبي رقم 920/2018 - لم تنشر بعد في الجريدة الرسمية 07 / 10/2018 - كوميسيون ريجول (الاتحاد الأوروبي) رقم 920/2018 لنظام موحد ومضمون للسجلات عملا بالتوجيه 2003/87 / إيك الصادر عن البرلمان الأوروبي والمجلس الأوروبي والقرار رقم 280/2004 / إيك الصادر عن البرلمان الأوروبي والمجلس - بما في ذلك التغييرات التي أدخلتها لائحة 18 نوفمبر 2018 08/10/2008 - لائحة المفوضية (إيك) رقم 994/2008 لنظام موحد ومضمون من السجلات وفقا للتوجيه 2003/87 / إيك للبرلمان الأوروبي والمجلس الأوروبي - القرار رقم 280/2004 / إيك الصادر عن البرلمان الأوروبي والمجلس - نسخة مطبقة حتى 31 ديسمبر 2018 26/10/2007 - قرار اللجنة المشتركة للمنطقة الاقتصادية الأوروبية رقم 146/2007 الذي يربط الاتحاد الأوروبي بالإنتربول، مع النرويج وأيسلندا وليختنشتاين 13/11 / 2006 - قرار اللجنة 2006/780 / إيك بشأن تجنب الازدواجية المزدوجة لانبعاثات غازات الدفيئة في إطار خطة الجماعة المعنية بتداول الانبعاثات لأنشطة المشاريع بموجب بروتوكول كيوتو عملا بالتوجيه 2003/87 / إيك الصادر عن البرلمان الأوروبي والمجلس (ن) (2006) 5362) 21/12/2004 - نسخة موحدة من لائحة المفوضية (إيك) رقم 2216/2004 بشأن نظام موحد ومضمون للسجلات معدلة بموجب لائحة المفوضية رقم 916/2007 المؤرخة 31 يوليو / تموز 2007، لائحة المفوضية (إيك) رقم 994/2008 المؤرخة 8 أكتوبر 2008 ولائحة المفوضية (يو) رقم 920/2018 المؤرخة 7 أكتوبر 2018 - نسخة لا تشمل التغييرات التي أدخلتها لائحة 18 نوفمبر 2018.
تطبيق ضريبة القيمة المضافة.
التاريخ التشريعي للتوجيه 2003/87 / إيك.
العمل قبل اقتراح اللجنة.
08/02/2000 - كوم (2000) 87 - ورقة خضراء بشأن الاتجار بانبعاثات غازات الدفيئة في إطار الاتحاد الأوروبي ولاية ونتائج الفريق العامل الأول التابع للجنة إكب: الآليات المرنة 04/09/2001 - المحضر الموجز لاجتماع التشاور مع أصحاب المصلحة (مع الصناعة والمنظمات غير الحكومية البيئية) 19/05/1999 - كوم (1999) 230 - التحضير لتنفيذ بروتوكول كيوتو 03/06/1998 - كوم (1998) 353 - تغير المناخ - نحو استراتيجية ما بعد كيوتو للاتحاد الأوروبي نطاق إتس للاتحاد الأوروبي : 07/2007 - المنشآت الصغيرة داخل الاتحاد الأوروبي نظام تداول الانبعاثات 10/2006 - إدراج أنشطة إضافية والغازات في الاتحاد الأوروبي نظام تداول الانبعاثات مزيد من المواءمة وزيادة القدرة على التنبؤ: 12/2006 - النهج إلى الداخلين الجدد والإغلاق 10/2006 - مزاد بدائل انبعاث ثاني أآسيد الكربون في الاتحاد الأوروبي إتس 10/2006 - مواءمة منهجيات التخصيص 12/2006 - تقرير عن القدرة التنافسية الدولية فريق عمل إكب المعني بتداول الانبعاثات في استعراض إتس للاتحاد الأوروبي 15/06/2007 - التقرير النهائي للمي 4 بشأن الربط مع أنظمة تجارة الانبعاثات في الدول الثالثة 22/05/2007 - التقرير النهائي للاجتماع الثالث حول مزيد من المواءمة وزيادة القدرة على التنبؤ 26/04/2007 - التقرير النهائي للاجتماع الثاني حول الامتثال الصارم وإنفاذ القانون 09/03/2007 - التقرير النهائي للاجتماع الأول بشأن نطاق التوجيه.
22/01/2002 - ورقة غير رسمية عن أوجه التآزر بين اقتراح المفوضية الأوروبية بشأن الاتجار بالانبعاثات (كوم (2001) 581) وتوجيه الاتفاقية الدولية لوقاية النباتات 23/10/2001 - كوم (2001) 581 - اقتراح بشأن توجيه إطاري لتداول انبعاثات غازات الدفيئة داخل الجماعة الأوروبية.
رد فعل اللجنة على قراءة الاقتراح في المجلس والبرلمان (بما في ذلك الموقف المشترك للمجلس)
18/07/2003 - كوم (2003) 463 - رأي اللجنة بشأن تعديلات البرلمان الأوروبي على الموقف المشترك للمجلس بشأن اقتراح توجيه البرلمان الأوروبي والمجلس الأوروبي 20/06/2003 - كوم (2003) 364 - الاتصال باللجنة إلى البرلمان الأوروبي بشأن الموقف المشترك للمجلس بشأن اعتماد توجيه يضع مخططا لتداول بدل انبعاثات غازات الدفيئة داخل الجماعة وتعديل توجيه المجلس 96/61 / إيك 18/03/2003 - الموقف المشترك (إيك ) لا 28/2003 - الموقف المشترك للمجلس بشأن اعتماد توجيه يضع مخططا لتداول بدل انبعاثات غازات الدفيئة داخل الجماعة وتعديل توجيه المجلس 96/61 / إيك 27/11/2002 - كوم (2002) 680 - اقتراح معدل لتوجيه من البرلمان الأوروبي والمجلس يضع مخططا لتداول بدل انبعاث غازات الدفيئة داخل الجماعة وتعديل توجيه المجلس 96/61 / إيك فاق.
افتح جميع الأسئلة.
أسئلة وأجوبة بشأن نظام الاتحاد الأوروبي المنقح لتداول الانبعاثات (كانون الأول / ديسمبر 2008)
ما هو الهدف من تداول الانبعاثات؟
والهدف من نظام االتحاد األوروبي لتداول االنبعاثات هو مساعدة الدول األعضاء في االتحاد األوروبي على تحقيق التزاماتها للحد من انبعاثات غازات الدفيئة أو الحد منها بطريقة فعالة من حيث التكلفة. والسماح للشركات المشاركة بشراء أو بيع بدلات الانبعاثات يعني أن التخفيضات في الانبعاثات يمكن تحقيقها بأقل تكلفة.
إن إتس الاتحاد الأوروبي هو حجر الزاوية في استراتيجية الاتحاد الأوروبي لمكافحة تغير المناخ. وهو أول نظام تجاري دولي لانبعاثات ثاني أكسيد الكربون في العالم، وقد بدأ العمل به منذ عام 2005. واعتبارا من الأول من يناير / كانون الثاني 2008، فإنه لا ينطبق فقط على الدول الأعضاء في الاتحاد الأوروبي البالغ عددها 27 دولة، وإنما ينطبق أيضا على الأعضاء الثلاثة الآخرين في المنطقة الاقتصادية الأوروبية - النرويج وأيسلندا وليختنشتاين. وهي تغطي حاليا أكثر من 000 10 منشأة في قطاعي الطاقة والصناعة وهما مسؤولان جماعيا عن ما يقرب من نصف انبعاثات الاتحاد الأوروبي من ثاني أكسيد الكربون و 40 في المائة من مجموع انبعاثات غازات الدفيئة. وسيؤدي إدخال تعديل على توجيه الاتحاد الأوروبي بشأن التجارة الإلكترونية المتفق عليه في تموز / يوليه 2008 إلى إدراج قطاع الطيران في النظام اعتبارا من عام 2018.
كيف يعمل تداول الانبعاثات؟
و إتس الاتحاد الأوروبي هو نظام "سقف والتجارة"، وهذا يعني أنه يحد من المستوى العام للانبعاثات المسموح بها ولكن، في حدود هذا، يسمح للمشاركين في النظام لشراء وبيع البدلات كما تتطلب. هذه البدلات هي "عملة" التداول المشتركة في قلب النظام. يمنح أحد البدلات لصاحب الحق الحق في انبعاث طن واحد من ثاني أكسيد الكربون أو ما يعادله من غازات الدفيئة الأخرى. ويؤدي الحد الأقصى لعدد البدلات إلى نشوء ندرة في السوق.
وفي فترة التداول الأولى والثانية في إطار هذا المخطط، كان على الدول الأعضاء أن تضع خططا وطنية للتخصيص تحدد المستوى الكلي لانبعاثاتها، وكم عدد البدلات التي تصدرها كل منشأة في بلدها. وفي نهاية كل سنة يجب أن تسلم المنشآت بدلات تعادل انبعاثاتها. ويمكن للشركات التي تبقي انبعاثاتها دون مستوى بدلاتها أن تبيع بدلاتها الزائدة. ويواجه أولئك الذين يواجهون صعوبة في الحفاظ على انبعاثاتهم وفقا لبدلاتهم خيارا بين اتخاذ تدابير للحد من انبعاثاتهم الخاصة - مثل الاستثمار في تكنولوجيا أكثر كفاءة أو استخدام مصادر طاقة أقل كثافة من الكربون - أو شراء البدلات الإضافية التي يحتاجونها في السوق ، أو مزيج من الاثنين. ومن المرجح أن تحدد هذه الخيارات بتكاليف نسبية. وبهذه الطريقة، تخفض الانبعاثات حيثما يكون ذلك أكثر فعالية من حيث التكلفة.
كم من الوقت كان الاتحاد الأوروبي إتس تعمل؟
تم إطلاق إتس الاتحاد الأوروبي في 1 يناير 2005. استمرت فترة التداول الأولى لمدة ثلاث سنوات حتى نهاية عام 2007 وكانت مرحلة "التعلم بالممارسة" للتحضير لفترة التداول الثانية الحاسمة. وبدأت فترة التداول الثانية في 1 يناير 2008 وتستمر لمدة خمس سنوات حتى نهاية عام 2018. وتأتي أهمية فترة التداول الثانية من كونها تتزامن مع فترة الالتزام الأولى لبروتوكول كيوتو، يجب على البلدان الصناعية أن تحقق أهدافها للحد من انبعاثات غازات الدفيئة أو الحد منها. وبالنسبة لفترة التداول الثانية، تم تحديد انبعاثات الاتحاد الأوروبي لانبعاثات غازات الدفيئة بنحو 6.5٪ دون مستويات عام 2005 للمساعدة على ضمان أن الاتحاد الأوروبي ككل، والدول الأعضاء على حدة، يفي بالتزامات كيوتو.
ما هي الدروس الرئيسية المستفادة من التجربة حتى الآن؟
وقد وضعت إتس الاتحاد الأوروبي سعرا على الكربون وأثبتت أن الاتجار في انبعاثات غازات الدفيئة يعمل. وقد أنشأت فترة التداول الأولى بنجاح التداول الحر لبدلات الانبعاث في جميع أنحاء الاتحاد الأوروبي، ووضعت البنية التحتية اللازمة ووضعت سوقا ديناميكية للكربون. وقد تكون الفائدة البيئية للمرحلة الأولى محدودة بسبب التوزيع المفرط للبدلات في بعض الدول الأعضاء وبعض القطاعات، ويرجع ذلك أساسا إلى الاعتماد على إسقاطات الانبعاثات قبل أن تصبح بيانات الانبعاثات التي تم التحقق منها متاحة في إطار إتس للاتحاد الأوروبي. وعندما أبرز نشر بيانات الانبعاثات المؤكدة لعام 2005 هذا "الإفراط في تخصيص"، كان رد فعل السوق كما هو متوقع من خلال خفض سعر السوق للبدلات. وقد أتاح توافر بيانات الانبعاثات المؤكدة للجنة أن تكفل تحديد الحد الأقصى للمخصصات الوطنية في إطار المرحلة الثانية على مستوى يؤدي إلى تخفيضات حقيقية في الانبعاثات.
وإلى جانب التأكيد على الحاجة إلى بيانات تم التحقق منها، أثبتت التجربة حتى الآن أن زيادة المواءمة داخل إتس الاتحاد الأوروبي أمر حتمي لضمان أن يحقق الاتحاد الأوروبي أهدافه في خفض الانبعاثات على الأقل بتكلفة وبحد أدنى من التشوهات التنافسية. والحاجة إلى مزيد من المواءمة أوضح فيما يتعلق بكيفية تحديد الحد الأقصى لبدلات الانبعاثات الإجمالية.
وتبين الفترتان التجاريتان الأوليان أيضا أن الطرق الوطنية المختلفة على نطاق واسع لتخصيص البدلات للمنشآت تهدد المنافسة العادلة في السوق الداخلية. وعلاوة على ذلك، هناك حاجة إلى قدر أكبر من المواءمة والتوضيح والتنقيح فيما يتعلق بنطاق النظام، وإمكانية الحصول على ائتمانات من مشاريع خفض الانبعاثات خارج الاتحاد الأوروبي، وشروط ربط النظام الأوروبي لتكنولوجيا الاتصالات بالأنظمة التجارية للانبعاثات في أماكن أخرى، متطلبات تقديم التقارير.
ما هي التغييرات الرئيسية في إتس الاتحاد الأوروبي، ومتى سيتم تطبيقها؟
وستطبق التغييرات المتفق عليها للتصميم اعتبارا من فترة التداول الثالثة، أي يناير / كانون الثاني 2018. وبينما ستبدأ الأعمال التحضيرية فورا، لن تتغير القواعد السارية حتى يناير 2018 لضمان الحفاظ على الاستقرار التنظيمي.
وستكون معاهدة التجارة الأوروبية للاتحاد الأوروبي في الفترة الثالثة نظاما أكثر كفاءة وأكثر اتساقا وعدلا.
وتتحقق زيادة الكفاءة من خالل فرتة تداول أطول) 8 سنوات بدال من 5 سنوات (، وخفض انبعاثات قوي ومتراجع سنويا) انخفاض بنسبة 21٪ يف عام 2020 مقارنة بعام 2005 (وزيادة كبرية يف كمية املزادات) من أقل من 4٪ في المرحلة 2 إلى أكثر من النصف في المرحلة 3).
وتم الاتفاق على مزيد من المواءمة في العديد من المجالات، بما في ذلك فيما يتعلق بتحديد الحد الأقصى (وهو سقف على نطاق الاتحاد الأوروبي بدلا من الحدود الوطنية في المرحلتين 1 و 2) والقواعد المتعلقة بالتخصيص الحر الانتقالي.
وقد ازدادت عدالة النظام زيادة كبيرة من خلال التحرك نحو قواعد التخصيص المجاني على نطاق الاتحاد الأوروبي للمنشآت الصناعية وبإدخال آلية لإعادة التوزيع تخول للدول الأعضاء الجديدة في المزاد المزيد من البدلات.
كيف يقارن النص النهائي مع اقتراح اللجنة الأولي؟
وقد تم الحفاظ على أهداف المناخ والطاقة التي وافق عليها مجلس الربيع الأوروبي لعام 2007، ولا يزال الهيكل العام لاقتراح اللجنة بشأن إتس للاتحاد الأوروبي سليما. بمعنى أنه سيكون هناك سقف واحد على مستوى الاتحاد الأوروبي على عدد بدلات الانبعاثات، وسوف ينخفض هذا الحد سنويا على طول خط اتجاه خطى، والذي سيستمر بعد نهاية فترة التداول الثالثة (2018-2020). والفرق الرئيسي مقارنة بالمقترح هو أن مزاد العلاوات سيتم تدريجيا على نحو أبطأ.
ما هي التغييرات الرئيسية مقارنة باقتراح اللجنة؟
وباختصار، فإن التغييرات الرئيسية التي أدخلت على المقترح هي كما يلي:
ويسمح لبعض الدول الأعضاء بانتقاص اختياري ومؤقت من القاعدة التي تنص على عدم تخصيص أي بدلات مجانا لمولدات الكهرباء اعتبارا من عام 2018. ويتاح هذا الخيار للتقييد للدول الأعضاء التي تستوفي شروطا معينة تتعلق بالترابط بين الكهرباء وحصة وقود أحفوري واحد في إنتاج الكهرباء، ونصيب الفرد من الناتج المحلي الإجمالي بالنسبة لمتوسط الاتحاد الأوروبي 27. وبالإضافة إلى ذلك، فإن مقدار البدلات المجانية التي يمكن أن تخصصها دولة عضو لمحطات توليد الطاقة يقتصر على 70 في المائة من انبعاثات ثاني أكسيد الكربون من المصانع ذات الصلة في المرحلة 1 والتراجع في السنوات التالية. وعلاوة على ذلك، لا يمكن تخصيص التخصيص المجاني في المرحلة 3 إلا لمحطات توليد الطاقة التي تعمل أو قيد الإنشاء في موعد لا يتجاوز نهاية عام 2008. انظر الرد على السؤال 15 أدناه. وسيكون هناك مزيد من التفاصيل في التوجيه بشأن المعايير التي ستستخدم لتحديد القطاعات أو القطاعات الفرعية التي تعتبر معرضة لخطر كبير من تسرب الكربون، وتاريخ سابق لنشر قائمة اللجنة لهذه القطاعات (31 كانون الأول / ديسمبر) 2009). وعلاوة على ذلك، تخضع المنشآت في جميع الصناعات المعرضة لبدلات مجانية بنسبة 100 في المائة إلى الحد الذي تستخدم فيه التكنولوجيا الأكثر كفاءة، رهنا بالاستعراض عند التوصل إلى اتفاق دولي مرض. ويقتصر التوزيع الحر للصناعة على حصة انبعاثات هذه الصناعات في إجمالي الانبعاثات في الفترة من عام 2005 إلى عام 2007. وسوف ينخفض مجموع البدلات المخصصة مجانا للمنشآت في قطاعات الصناعة سنويا بما يتماشى مع انخفاض سقف الانبعاثات. كما يجوز للدول الأعضاء أن تعوض منشآت معينة عن تكاليف ثاني أكسيد الكربون التي تم تمريرها في أسعار الكهرباء إذا كانت تكاليف ثاني أكسيد الكربون قد تعرضها لخطر تسرب الكربون. وتعهدت اللجنة بتعديل المبادئ التوجيهية للجماعة بشأن المعونة الحكومية لحماية البيئة في هذا الصدد. انظر الرد على السؤال 15 أدناه. وسيزداد مستوى المزاد العلني للبدلات للصناعات غير المعرضة بطريقة خطية على النحو الذي اقترحته اللجنة، ولكن بدلا من الوصول إلى 100٪ بحلول عام 2020 سيصل إلى 70٪، بهدف الوصول إلى 100٪ بحلول عام 2027. وكما هو متوقع في فإن اقتراح اللجنة، سيعاد توزيع 10 في المائة من البدلات المخصصة للمزاد العلني من الدول الأعضاء ذات الدخل الفردي المرتفع إلى ذوي الدخل الفردي المنخفض من أجل تعزيز القدرة المالية لهذه البلدان على الاستثمار في التكنولوجيات الصديقة للبيئة. وقد أضيفت مخصصات لآلية إعادة توزيع أخرى بنسبة 2 في المائة من البدلات المزاد بالمزاد العلني لتأخذ في الاعتبار الدول الأعضاء التي حققت في عام 2005 انخفاضا بنسبة 20 في المائة على الأقل في انبعاثات غازات الدفيئة مقارنة بالسنة المرجعية التي حددها بروتوكول كيوتو. وتزداد حصة إيرادات المزادات التي توصي الدول الأعضاء باستخدامها لمكافحة تغير المناخ والتكيف معه بشكل رئيسي داخل الاتحاد الأوروبي، ولكن أيضا في البلدان النامية، من 20٪ إلى 50٪. وينص النص على زيادة المستوى المقترح لاستخدام اعتمادات الجماعة الإسلامية / آلية التنمية النظيفة في سيناريو بنسبة 20 في المائة بالنسبة للمشغلين الحاليين الذين حصلوا على أقل الميزانيات لاستيراد واستخدام هذه الائتمانات فيما يتعلق بالمخصصات والوصول إلى الائتمانات في الفترة 2008-2018. وستكون القطاعات الجديدة والداخلين الجدد في الفترتين 2018-2020 و 2008-2018 قادرين أيضا على استخدام الائتمانات. ومع ذلك، فإن المبلغ الإجمالي للائتمانات التي يمكن استخدامها لن يتجاوز 50 في المائة من التخفيض بين عامي 2008 و 2020. واستنادا إلى تخفيض أكثر صرامة للانبعاثات في سياق اتفاق دولي مرض، يمكن للجنة أن تسمح بالوصول الإضافي إلى وحدات خفض الانبعاثات المعتمدة ووحدات خفض الانبعاثات للمشغلين في مخطط الجماعة. انظر الرد على السؤال 20 أدناه. وستستخدم العائدات من مزاد 300 مليون بدالة من احتياطي الوافدين الجدد لدعم ما يصل إلى 12 مشروعا ومشروعا إيضاحيا بشأن احتجاز وتخزين الكربون تبين تكنولوجيات مبتكرة للطاقة المتجددة. وهناك عدد من الشروط المرفقة بآلية التمويل هذه. انظر الرد على السؤال 30 أدناه. وقد تم توسيع إمكانية اختيار منشآت الاحتراق الصغيرة بشرط خضوعها لتدابير مماثلة لتغطي جميع المنشآت الصغيرة بغض النظر عن النشاط، فقد تم رفع عتبة الانبعاثات من 10،000 إلى 25،000 طن من ثاني أكسيد الكربون سنويا، وعتبة القدرة التي منشآت الاحتراق يجب أن تفي بالإضافة قد أثيرت من 25MW إلى 35MW. ومع هذه العتبات المتزايدة، تصبح حصة الانبعاثات المغطاة التي يحتمل استبعادها من نظام الاتجار بالانبعاثات هامة، وبالتالي أضيف حكم يسمح بإجراء تخفيض مناظر في الحد الأقصى للبدلات على نطاق الاتحاد الأوروبي.
هل ستظل هناك خطط وطنية للتخصيص (نابس)؟
لا، حددت الدول الأعضاء في خطط عملها الوطنية للفترة الأولى (2005-2007) والفترة التجارية الثانية (2008-2018) الكمية الإجمالية للبدلات التي ستصدر - الحد الأقصى - وكيفية تخصيصها للمنشآت المعنية. وقد ولد هذا النهج اختلافات كبيرة في قواعد التخصيص، مما يخلق حافزا لكل دولة عضو على تفضيل صناعتها الخاصة، وأدى إلى تعقيد كبير.
واعتبارا من فترة التداول الثالثة، سيكون هناك سقف واحد على نطاق الاتحاد الأوروبي وسيتم تخصيص البدلات على أساس القواعد المنسقة. ولذلك لن تكون هناك حاجة إلى خطط تخصيص وطنية.
كيف سيتم تحديد الحد الأقصى للانبعاثات في المرحلة 3؟
وفيما يلي قواعد حساب سقف الاتحاد الأوروبي:
واعتبارا من عام 2018، سينخفض العدد الإجمالي للبدلات سنويا بطريقة خطية. ونقطة البداية في هذا الخط هي متوسط الكمية الإجمالية للبدلات (سقف المرحلة الثانية) الذي ستصدره الدول الأعضاء للفترة 2008-12، وتعديله ليعكس النطاق الواسع للنظام اعتبارا من عام 2018، وكذلك أي منشآت صغيرة عضو وقد اختارت الدول استبعادها. والعامل الخطي الذي ينخفض به المبلغ السنوي هو 1.74٪ بالنسبة إلى غطاء المرحلة 2.
ونقطة البداية لتحديد العامل الخطي 1.74٪ هي التخفيض العام بنسبة 20٪ لغازات الدفيئة مقارنة بعام 1990، وهو ما يعادل انخفاضا بنسبة 14٪ مقارنة بعام 2005. ومع ذلك، يلزم تخفيض أكبر من إتس للاتحاد الأوروبي لأنه أرخص لخفض الانبعاثات في قطاعات إتس. وتقسم الشعبة التي تقلل من تكلفة التخفيض الإجمالية إلى ما يلي:
انخفاض بنسبة 21٪ في انبعاثات قطاع إتس في الاتحاد الأوروبي مقارنة بعام 2005 بحلول عام 2020؛ وهو ما يمثل انخفاضا بنحو 10٪ مقارنة بعام 2005 بالنسبة للقطاعات التي لا تغطيها إتس الاتحاد الأوروبي.
ويؤدي التخفيض بنسبة 21 في المائة في عام 2020 إلى الحد الأقصى لمعاهدة التعاون التقني في عام 2020 بحد أقصى قدره 1720 مليونا من البدلات، وهو ما يعني أن متوسط الحد الأقصى للمرحلة الثالثة (2018 إلى 2020) يبلغ نحو 1846 مليون بدل وخفض 11 في المائة بالمقارنة مع سقف المرحلة الثانية.
وتتوافق جميع الأرقام المطلقة مع التغطية في بداية فترة التداول الثانية، وبالتالي لا تأخذ في الحسبان الطيران، والتي ستضاف في عام 2018، والقطاعات الأخرى التي ستضاف في المرحلة 3.
وستحدد اللجنة الأرقام النهائية لأرقام الانبعاثات السنوية في المرحلة 3 وتنشرها بحلول 30 أيلول / سبتمبر 2018.
كيف سيتم تحديد الحد الأقصى للانبعاثات بعد المرحلة 3؟
وسيستمر تطبيق العامل الخطي بنسبة 1.74٪ لتحديد سقف المرحلة 3 بعد نهاية فترة التداول في عام 2020، وسيحدد الحد الأقصى لفترة التداول الرابعة (2021 إلى 2028) وما بعدها. ويمكن تعديله بحلول عام 2025 على أبعد تقدير. في الواقع، سيكون من الضروري تخفيضات كبيرة في الانبعاثات بنسبة 60٪ -80٪ مقارنة بعام 1990 بحلول عام 2050 للوصول إلى الهدف الاستراتيجي المتمثل في الحد من الزيادة العالمية في درجات الحرارة إلى ما لا يزيد عن 2 درجة مئوية فوق مستويات ما قبل الثورة الصناعية.
وسيتم تحديد سقف على نطاق الاتحاد الأوروبي لبدلات الانبعاثات لكل سنة على حدة. هل سيؤدي ذلك إلى تقليل المرونة للمنشآت المعنية؟
لا، لن يتم تخفيض المرونة للمنشآت على الإطلاق. وفي أي سنة، يتعين على السلطات المختصة أن تصدر العلاوات المزمع مزادها وتوزيعها بحلول 28 شباط / فبراير. وآخر موعد لتقديم بدلات الاسترداد هو 30 نيسان / أبريل من السنة التالية للسنة التي حدثت فيها الانبعاثات. لذلك يحصل المشغلون على بدلات للسنة الحالية قبل أن يضطروا إلى تقديم بدلات لتغطية انبعاثاتهم للسنة السابقة. وتبقى العلاوات سارية طوال فرتة التداول، وميكن اآلن "أن تكون" املخصصات الفائضة "مصرفية" الستخدامها يف فرتات املتاجرة الالحقة. وفي هذا الصدد لن يتغير شيء.
وسيبقى النظام قائما على فترات التداول، ولكن فترة التداول الثالثة ستستمر ثماني سنوات، من 2018 إلى 2020، مقابل خمس سنوات للمرحلة الثانية من 2008 إلى 2018.
وبالنسبة لفترة التداول الثانية، قررت الدول الأعضاء عموما تخصيص كميات متساوية من البدلات لكل سنة. وسيتطابق الانخفاض الخطي كل سنة اعتبارا من 2018 مع اتجاهات الانبعاثات المتوقعة على نحو أفضل خلال هذه الفترة.
ما هي الأرقام السنوية المؤقتة لرسوم إتس للفترة 2018-2018؟
فيما يلي أرقام رأس المال السنوية المبدئية:
وتستند هذه الأرقام إلى نطاق إتس كما هو مطبق في المرحلة 2 (2008 إلى 2018)، وقرارات اللجنة بشأن خطط التخصيص الوطنية للمرحلة الثانية، التي تبلغ 2083 مليون طن. وسيتم تعديل هذه الأرقام لعدة أسباب. أولا، سيجري تعديل لمراعاة تمديدات النطاق في المرحلة 2، شريطة أن تثبت الدول الأعضاء انبعاثاتها الناشئة عن هذه التمديدات والتحقق منها. وثانيا، سيجري تعديل فيما يتعلق بمزيد من التمديدات لنطاق معاهدة التجارة الأوروبية في فترة التداول الثالثة. وثالثا، فإن أي تعطيل للمنشآت الصغيرة سيؤدي إلى تخفيض مماثل في الحد الأقصى. رابعا، لا تأخذ الأرقام في الحسبان إدراج الطيران، ولا الانبعاثات من النرويج وأيسلندا وليختنشتاين.
هل ستخصص المخصصات مجانا؟
نعم فعلا. وستحصل المنشآت الصناعية على تخصيص مجاني انتقالي. وفي الدول الأعضاء المؤهلة للانتقاص الاختياري، يجوز لمحطات توليد الطاقة أيضا، إذا ما قررت الدولة العضو ذلك، الحصول على بدلات مجانية. وتشير التقديرات إلى أن نصف البدلات المتاحة على الأقل بحلول عام 2018 سيجري بيعها بالمزاد العلني.
وفي حين أن الغالبية العظمى من البدلات قد خصصت مجانا للمنشآت في فترتي التداول الأولى والثانية، اقترحت اللجنة أن يصبح المزاد العلني للمخصصات المبدأ الأساسي للتخصيص. ويرجع ذلك إلى أن المزاد يضمن على نحو أفضل كفاءة وشفافية وبساطة النظام ويخلق أكبر حافز للاستثمار في اقتصاد منخفض الكربون. أفضل ما يتماشى مع "مبدأ الملوث يدفع" ويتجنب إعطاء أرباح غير متوقعة لبعض القطاعات التي مرت على التكلفة الافتراضية للبدلات لعملائها على الرغم من الحصول عليها مجانا.
كيف سيتم توزيع البدلات مجانا؟
وبحلول 31 كانون الأول / ديسمبر 2018، ستعتمد اللجنة قواعد على نطاق الاتحاد الأوروبي، ستوضع في إطار إجراء للجنة ("كوميتولوغي"). وهذه القواعد سوف تنسق تماما المخصصات، وبالتالي فإن جميع الشركات في جميع أنحاء الاتحاد الأوروبي مع نفس الأنشطة أو ما شابهها سوف تخضع لنفس القواعد. وستكفل القواعد إلى أقصى حد ممكن أن يخصص التخصيص تكنولوجيات تتسم بالكفاءة في استخدام الكربون. وتنص القواعد المعتمدة على أنه ينبغي، قدر الإمكان، أن تستند المخصصات إلى ما يسمى بالمعايير المرجعية، عدد من البدلات لكل كمية من الإنتاج التاريخي. وتكافئ هذه القواعد المشغلين الذين اتخذوا إجراءات مبكرة للحد من غازات الدفيئة، ويعكسون على نحو أفضل مبدأ الملوث يدفعون، ويعطيون حوافز أقوى لخفض الانبعاثات، لأن المخصصات لن تعتمد على الانبعاثات التاريخية. يتم تحديد جميع المخصصات قبل بداية فترة التداول الثالثة ولن يسمح بأي تسويات لاحقة.
أي المنشآت سوف تتلقى مخصصات مجانية والتي لن؟ كيف يمكن تفادي الآثار السلبية على القدرة التنافسية؟
مع الأخذ في الاعتبار قدرتها على تمرير زيادة تكلفة بدلات الانبعاثات، المزاد الكامل هو القاعدة اعتبارا من 2018 فصاعدا لمولدات الكهرباء. ومع ذلك، فإن الدول الأعضاء التي تستوفي شروطا معينة تتعلق بترابطها أو نصيبها من الوقود الأحفوري في إنتاج الكهرباء والناتج المحلي الإجمالي للفرد بالنسبة لمتوسط الاتحاد الأوروبي 27، لديها خيار التحيد مؤقتا عن هذه القاعدة فيما يتعلق بمحطات الطاقة القائمة. The auctioning rate in 2018 is to be at least 30% in relation to emissions in the first period and has to increase progressively to 100% no later than 2020. If the option is applied, the Member State has to undertake to invest in improving and upgrading of the infrastructure, in clean technologies and in diversification of their energy mix and sources of supply for an amount to the extent possible equal to the market value of the free allocation.
In other sectors, allocations for free will be phased out progressively from 2018, with Member States agreeing to start at 20% auctioning in 2018, increasing to 70% auctioning in 2020 with a view to reaching 100% in 2027. However, an exception will be made for installations in sectors that are found to be exposed to a significant risk of 'carbon leakage'. This risk could occur if the EU ETS increased production costs so much that companies decided to relocate production to areas outside the EU that are not subject to comparable emission constraints. The Commission will determine the sectors concerned by 31 December 2009. To do this, the Commission will assess inter alia whether the direct and indirect additional production costs induced by the implementation of the ETS Directive as a proportion of gross value added exceed 5% and whether the total value of its exports and imports divided by the total value of its turnover and imports exceeds 10%. If the result for either of these criteria exceeds 30%, the sector would also be considered to be exposed to a significant risk of carbon leakage. Installations in these sectors would receive 100% of their share in the annually declining total quantity of allowances for free. The share of these industries' emissions is determined in relation to total ETS emissions in 2005 to 2007.
CO 2 costs passed on in electricity prices could also expose certain installations to the risk of carbon leakage. In order to avoid such risk, Member States may grant a compensation with respect to such costs. In the absence of an international agreement on climate change, the Commission has undertaken to modify the Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection in this respect.
Under an international agreement which ensures that competitors in other parts of the world bear a comparable cost, the risk of carbon leakage may well be negligible. Therefore, by 30 June 2018, the Commission will carry out an in-depth assessment of the situation of energy-intensive industry and the risk of carbon leakage, in the light of the outcome of the international negotiations and also taking into account any binding sectoral agreements that may have been concluded. The report will be accompanied by any proposals considered appropriate. These could potentially include maintaining or adjusting the proportion of allowances received free of charge to industrial installations that are particularly exposed to global competition or including importers of the products concerned in the ETS.
Who will organise the auctions and how will they be carried out?
Member States will be responsible for ensuring that the allowances given to them are auctioned. Each Member State has to decide whether it wants to develop its own auctioning infrastructure and platform or whether it wants to cooperate with other Member States to develop regional or EU-wide solutions. The distribution of the auctioning rights to Member States is largely based on emissions in phase 1 of the EU ETS, but a part of the rights will be redistributed from richer Member States to poorer ones to take account of the lower GDP per head and higher prospects for growth and emissions among the latter. It is still the case that 10% of the rights to auction allowances will be redistributed from Member States with high per capita income to those with low per capita income in order to strengthen the financial capacity of the latter to invest in climate friendly technologies. However, a provision has been added for another redistributive mechanism of 2% to take into account Member States which in 2005 had achieved a reduction of at least 20% in greenhouse gas emissions compared with the reference year set by the Kyoto Protocol. Nine Member States benefit from this provision.
Any auctioning must respect the rules of the internal market and must therefore be open to any potential buyer under non-discriminatory conditions. By 30 June 2018, the Commission will adopt a Regulation (through the comitology procedure) that will provide the appropriate rules and conditions for ensuring efficient, coordinated auctions without disturbing the allowance market.
How many allowances will each Member State auction and how is this amount determined?
All allowances which are not allocated free of charge will be auctioned. A total of 88% of allowances to be auctioned by each Member State is distributed on the basis of the Member State's share of historic emissions under the EU ETS. For purposes of solidarity and growth, 12% of the total quantity is distributed in a way that takes into account GDP per capita and the achievements under the Kyoto-Protocol.
Which sectors and gases are covered as of 2018?
The ETS covers installations performing specified activities. Since the start it has covered, above certain capacity thresholds, power stations and other combustion plants, oil refineries, coke ovens, iron and steel plants and factories making cement, glass, lime, bricks, ceramics, pulp, paper and board. As for greenhouse gases, it currently only covers carbon dioxide emissions, with the exception of the Netherlands, which has opted in emissions from nitrous oxide.
As from 2018, the scope of the ETS will be extended to also include other sectors and greenhouse gases. CO 2 emissions from petrochemicals, ammonia and aluminium will be included, as will N2O emissions from the production of nitric, adipic and glyocalic acid production and perfluorocarbons from the aluminium sector. The capture, transport and geological storage of all greenhouse gas emissions will also be covered. These sectors will receive allowances free of charge according to EU-wide rules, in the same way as other industrial sectors already covered.
As of 2018, aviation will also be included in the EU ETS.
Will small installations be excluded from the scope?
A large number of installations emitting relatively low amounts of CO 2 are currently covered by the ETS and concerns have been raised over the cost-effectiveness of their inclusion. As from 2018, Member States will be allowed to remove these installations from the ETS under certain conditions. The installations concerned are those whose reported emissions were lower than 25 000 tonnes of CO 2 equivalent in each of the 3 years preceding the year of application. For combustion installations, an additional capacity threshold of 35MW applies. In addition Member States are given the possibility to exclude installations operated by hospitals. The installations may be excluded from the ETS only if they will be covered by measures that will achieve an equivalent contribution to emission reductions.
How many emission credits from third countries will be allowed?
For the second trading period, Member States allowed their operators to use significant quantities of credits generated by emission-saving projects undertaken in third countries to cover part of their emissions in the same way as they use ETS allowances. The revised Directive extends the rights to use these credits for the third trading period and allows a limited additional quantity to be used in such a way that the overall use of credits is limited to 50% of the EU-wide reductions over the period 2008-2020. For existing installations, and excluding new sectors within the scope, this will represent a total level of access of approximately 1.6 billion credits over the period 2008-2020. In practice, this means that existing operators will be able to use credits up to a minimum of 11% of their allocation during the period 2008-2018, while a top-up is foreseen for operators with the lowest sum of free allocation and allowed use of credits in the 2008-2018 period. New sectors and new entrants in the third trading period will have a guaranteed minimum access of 4.5% of their verified emissions during the period 2018-2020. For the aviation sector, the minimum access will be 1.5%. The precise percentages will be determined through comitology.
These projects must be officially recognised under the Kyoto Protocol’s Joint Implementation (JI) mechanism (covering projects carried out in countries with an emissions reduction target under the Protocol) or Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) (for projects undertaken in developing countries). Credits from JI projects are known as Emission Reduction Units (ERUs) while those from CDM projects are called Certified Emission Reductions (CERs).
On the quality side only credits from project types eligible for use in the EU trading scheme during the period 2008-2018 will be accepted in the period 2018-2020. Furthermore, from 1 January 2018 measures may be applied to restrict the use of specific credits from project types. Such a quality control mechanism is needed to assure the environmental and economic integrity of future project types.
To create greater flexibility, and in the absence of an international agreement being concluded by 31 December 2009, credits could be used in accordance with agreements concluded with third countries. The use of these credits should however not increase the overall number beyond 50% of the required reductions. Such agreements would not be required for new projects that started from 2018 onwards in Least Developed Countries.
Based on a stricter emissions reduction in the context of a satisfactory international agreement , additional access to credits could be allowed, as well as the use of additional types of project credits or other mechanisms created under the international agreement. However, once an international agreement has been reached, from January 2018 onwards only credits from projects in third countries that have ratified the agreement or from additional types of project approved by the Commission will be eligible for use in the Community scheme.
Will it be possible to use credits from carbon ‘sinks’ like forests?
No. Before making its proposal, the Commission analysed the possibility of allowing credits from certain types of land use, land-use change and forestry (‘LULUCF’) projects which absorb carbon from the atmosphere. It concluded that doing so could undermine the environmental integrity of the EU ETS, for the following reasons:
LULUCF projects cannot physically deliver permanent emissions reductions. Insufficient solutions have been developed to deal with the uncertainties, non-permanence of carbon storage and potential emissions 'leakage' problems arising from such projects. The temporary and reversible nature of such activities would pose considerable risks in a company-based trading system and impose great liability risks on Member States. The inclusion of LULUCF projects in the ETS would require a quality of monitoring and reporting comparable to the monitoring and reporting of emissions from installations currently covered by the system. This is not available at present and is likely to incur costs which would substantially reduce the attractiveness of including such projects. The simplicity, transparency and predictability of the ETS would be considerably reduced. Moreover, the sheer quantity of potential credits entering the system could undermine the functioning of the carbon market unless their role were limited, in which case their potential benefits would become marginal.
The Commission, the Council and the European Parliament believe that global deforestation can be better addressed through other instruments. For example, using part of the proceeds from auctioning allowances in the EU ETS could generate additional means to invest in LULUCF activities both inside and outside the EU, and may provide a model for future expansion. In this respect the Commission has proposed to set up the Global Forest Carbon Mechanism that would be a performance-based system for financing reductions in deforestation levels in developing countries.
Besides those already mentioned, are there other credits that could be used in the revised ETS?
نعم فعلا. Projects in EU Member States which reduce greenhouse gas emissions not covered by the ETS could issue credits. These Community projects would need to be managed according to common EU provisions set up by the Commission in order to be tradable throughout the system. Such provisions would be adopted only for projects that cannot be realised through inclusion in the ETS. The provisions will seek to ensure that credits from Community projects do not result in double-counting of emission reductions nor impede other policy measures to reduce emissions not covered by the ETS, and that they are based on simple, easily administered rules.
Are there measures in place to ensure that the price of allowances won't fall sharply during the third trading period?
A stable and predictable regulatory framework is vital for market stability. The revised Directive makes the regulatory framework as predictable as possible in order to boost stability and rule out policy-induced volatility. Important elements in this respect are the determination of the cap on emissions in the Directive well in advance of the start of the trading period, a linear reduction factor for the cap on emissions which continues to apply also beyond 2020 and the extension of the trading period from 5 to 8 years. The sharp fall in the allowance price during the first trading period was due to over-allocation of allowances which could not be “banked” for use in the second trading period. For the second and subsequent trading periods, Member States are obliged to allow the banking of allowances from one period to the next and therefore the end of one trading period is not expected to have any impact on the price.
A new provision will apply as of 2018 in case of excessive price fluctuations in the allowance market. If, for more than six consecutive months, the allowance price is more than three times the average price of allowances during the two preceding years on the European market, the Commission will convene a meeting with Member States. If it is found that the price evolution does not correspond to market fundamentals, the Commission may either allow Member States to bring forward the auctioning of a part of the quantity to be auctioned, or allow them to auction up to 25% of the remaining allowances in the new entrant reserve.
The price of allowances is determined by supply and demand and reflects fundamental factors like economic growth, fuel prices, rainfall and wind (availability of renewable energy) and temperature (demand for heating and cooling) etc. A degree of uncertainty is inevitable for such factors. The markets, however, allow participants to hedge the risks that may result from changes in allowances prices.
Are there any provisions for linking the EU ETS to other emissions trading systems?
نعم فعلا. One of the key means to reduce emissions more cost-effectively is to enhance and further develop the global carbon market. The Commission sees the EU ETS as an important building block for the development of a global network of emission trading systems. Linking other national or regional cap-and-trade emissions trading systems to the EU ETS can create a bigger market, potentially lowering the aggregate cost of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The increased liquidity and reduced price volatility that this would entail would improve the functioning of markets for emission allowances. This may lead to a global network of trading systems in which participants, including legal entities, can buy emission allowances to fulfil their respective reduction commitments.
The EU is keen to work with the new US Administration to build a transatlantic and indeed global carbon market to act as the motor of a concerted international push to combat climate change.
While the original Directive allows for linking the EU ETS with other industrialised countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol, the new rules allow for linking with any country or administrative entity (such as a state or group of states under a federal system) which has established a compatible mandatory cap-and-trade system whose design elements would not undermine the environmental integrity of the EU ETS. Where such systems cap absolute emissions, there would be mutual recognition of allowances issued by them and the EU ETS.
What is a Community registry and how does it work?
Registries are standardised electronic databases ensuring the accurate accounting of the issuance, holding, transfer and cancellation of emission allowances. As a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol in its own right, the Community is also obliged to maintain a registry. This is the Community Registry, which is distinct from the registries of Member States. Allowances issued from 1 January 2018 onwards will be held in the Community registry instead of in national registries.
Will there be any changes to monitoring, reporting and verification requirements?
The Commission will adopt a new Regulation (through the comitology procedure) by 31 December 2018 governing the monitoring and reporting of emissions from the activities listed in Annex I of the Directive. A separate Regulation on the verification of emission reports and the accreditation of verifiers should specify conditions for accreditation, mutual recognition and cancellation of accreditation for verifiers, and for supervision and peer review as appropriate.
What provision will be made for new entrants into the market?
Five percent of the total quantity of allowances will be put into a reserve for new installations or airlines that enter the system after 2018 (“new entrants”). The allocations from this reserve should mirror the allocations to corresponding existing installations.
A part of the new entrant reserve, amounting to 300 million allowances, will be made available to support the investments in up to 12 demonstration projects using the carbon capture and storage technology and demonstration projects using innovative renewable energy technologies. There should be a fair geographical distribution of the projects.
In principle, any allowances remaining in the reserve shall be distributed to Member States for auctioning. The distribution key shall take into account the level to which installations in Member States have benefited from this reserve.
What has been agreed with respect to the financing of the 12 carbon capture and storage demonstration projects requested by a previous European Council?
The European Parliament's Environment Committee tabled an amendment to the EU ETS Directive requiring allowances in the new entrant reserve to be set aside in order to co-finance up to 12 demonstration projects as requested by the European Council in spring 2007. This amendment has later been extended to include also innovative renewable energy technologies that are not commercially viable yet. Projects shall be selected on the basis of objective and transparent criteria that include requirements for knowledge sharing. Support shall be given from the proceeds of these allowances via Member States and shall be complementary to substantial co-financing by the operator of the installation. No project shall receive support via this mechanism that exceeds 15% of the total number of allowances (i.e. 45 million allowances) available for this purpose. The Member State may choose to co-finance the project as well, but will in any case transfer the market value of the attributed allowances to the operator, who will not receive any allowances.
A total of 300 million allowances will therefore be set aside until 2018 for this purpose.
What is the role of an international agreement and its potential impact on EU ETS?
When an international agreement is reached, the Commission shall submit a report to the European Parliament and the Council assessing the nature of the measures agreed upon in the international agreement and their implications, in particular with respect to the risk of carbon leakage. On the basis of this report, the Commission shall then adopt a legislative proposal amending the present Directive as appropriate.
For the effects on the use of credits from Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism projects, please see the reply to question 20.
ما هي الخطوات التالية؟
Member States have to bring into force the legal instruments necessary to comply with certain provisions of the revised Directive by 31 December 2009. This concerns the collection of duly substantiated and verified emissions data from installations that will only be covered by the EU ETS as from 2018, and the national lists of installations and the allocation to each one. For the remaining provisions, the national laws, regulations and administrative provisions only have to be ready by 31 December 2018.
The Commission has already started the work on implementation. For example, the collection and analysis of data for use in relation to carbon leakage is ongoing (list of sectors due end 2009). Work is also ongoing to prepare the Regulation on timing, administration and other aspects of auctioning (due by June 2018), the harmonised allocation rules (due end 2018) and the two Regulations on monitoring and reporting of emissions and verification of emissions and accreditation of verifiers (due end 2018).
Reducing emissions from aviation.
Aviation is one of the fastest-growing sources of greenhouse gas emissions. The EU is taking action to reduce aviation emissions in Europe and working with the international community to develop measures with global reach.
Aviation emissions growing fast.
Direct emissions from aviation account for about 3% of the EU’s total greenhouse gas emissions and more than 2% of global emissions. If global aviation was a country, it would rank in the top 10 emitters.
Someone flying from London to New York and back generates roughly the same level of emissions as the average person in the EU does by heating their home for a whole year.
By 2020 , global international aviation emissions are projected to be around 70% higher than in 2005 and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) forecasts that by 2050 they could grow by a further 300-700%.
Along with other sectors, aviation is contributing to emission reductions within the EU through the EU emissions trading system.
Aviation in EU Emissions Trading System.
CO 2 emissions from aviation have been included in the EU emissions trading system (EU ETS) since 2018. Under the EU ETS, all airlines operating in Europe, European and non-European alike, are required to monitor, report and verify their emissions, and to surrender allowances against those emissions. They receive tradeable allowances covering a certain level of emissions from their flights per year.
The system has so far contributed to reducing the carbon footprint of the aviation sector by more than 17 million tonnes per year, with compliance covering over 99.5% of emissions.
In addition to market-based measures like the ETS, operational measures – such as modernising and improving air traffic management technologies, procedures and systems – also contribute to reducing aviation emissions.
The legislation, adopted in 2008, was designed to apply to emissions from flights from, to and within the European Economic Area (EEA) – the 28 EU Member States, plus Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway. The European Court of Justice has confirmed that this approach is compatible with international law.
The EU, however, decided to limit the scope of the EU ETS to flights within the EEA until 2018 to support the development of a global measure by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).
In light of the adoption of a Resolution by the 2018 ICAO Assembly on the global measure (see below), the EU has decided to maintain the geographic scope of the EU ETS limited to intra-EEA flights from 2017 onwards. The EU ETS for aviation will be subject to a new review in the light of the international developments related to the operationalisation of CORSIA. The next review should consider how to implement the global measure in Union law through a revision of the EU ETS legislation. In the absence of a new amendment, the EU ETS would revert back to its original full scope from 2024.
Results of public consultation.
In 2018, the European Commission held a public consultation on market-based measures to reduce the climate change impact from international aviation. The consultation sought input on both global and EU policy options.
In total, 85 citizens and organizations responded.
Global scheme to offset emissions.
In October 2018, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) agreed on a Resolution for a global market-based measure to address CO 2 emissions from international aviation as of 2021 . The agreed Resolution sets out the objective and key design elements of the global scheme, as well as a roadmap for the completion of the work on implementing modalities.
The Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation, or CORSIA , aims to stabilise CO 2 emissions at 2020 levels by requiring airlines to offset the growth of their emissions after 2020.
Airlines will be required to.
monitor emissions on all international routes; offset emissions from routes included in the scheme by purchasing eligible emission units generated by projects that reduce emissions in other sectors (e.g. renewable energy).
During the period 2021-2035, and based on expected participation, the scheme is estimated to offset around 80% of the emissions above 2020 levels . This is because participation in the first phases is voluntary for states, and there are exemptions for those with low aviation activity. All EU countries will join the scheme from the start.
A regular review of the scheme is required under the terms of the agreement. This should allow for continuous improvement, including in how the scheme contributes to the goals of the Paris Agreement.
Work is ongoing at ICAO to develop the necessary implementation rules and tools to make the scheme operational. Effective and concrete implementation and operationalization of CORSIA will ultimately depend on national measures to be developed and enforced at domestic level.
EU ETS application from 2017 to 2023.
29/12/2017 - Regulation (EU) 2017/2392 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2017 amending Directive 2003/87/EC to continue current limitations of scope for aviation activities and to prepare to implement a global market-based measure from 2021 03/02/2017 - COM (2017) 54 - Proposal for a Regulation amending Directive 2003/87/EC to continue current limitations of scope for aviation activities and to prepare to implement a global market-based measure from 2021 03/02/2017 - SWD (2017) 30 - Executive summary of the Impact Assessment 03/02/2017 - SWD (2017) 31 - Impact Assessment.
Building Global Action.
10/2018 - 2018 ICAO Assembly Resolution Reservations by third countries 30/10/2018 - 2018 ICAO Assembly Resolution Reservations by third countries Statement of reservation from 42 members of the European Civil Aviation Conference 10-11/2018 - Reservations to the 2018 ICAO Assembly Resolution on Climate Change 07/10/2018 - 2018 ICAO Assembly Resolution on Climate Change.
EU ETS application from 2018 to 2018.
19/03/2018 - Frequently Asked Questions. Free allocation from the Special Reserve 16/04/2018 - Regulation (EU) No 421/2018 of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community, in view of the implementation by 2020 of an international agreement applying a single global market-based measure to international aviation emissions Frequently Asked Questions on the 2018-2018 Regulation amending the EU Emissions Trading System for aviation 16/10/2018 - COM (2018) 722 - Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community, in view of the implementation by 2020 of an international agreement applying a single global market-based measure to international aviation emissions. SWD (2018) 430 - Impact Assessment SWD (2018) 431 - Executive summary of the impact assessment MEMO/13/906 – Commission proposes applying EU ETS to European regional airspace from 1 January 2018 28/10/2018 - FAQ: Commission proposal for a European Regional Airspace Approach for EU emissions trading for aviation 23/10/2018 - Provisional list of countries to/from which it is proposed that routes be exempted from EU ETS for the period from 2018 to 2020.
EU ETS application for 2018.
04/10/2018 - Communication from the Commission - Guidance on the implementation of Decision No 377/2018/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council derogating temporarily from Directive 2003/87/EC establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community 24/04/2018 - Decision No 377/2018/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council derogating temporarily from Directive 2003/87/EC establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community 16/04/2018 - Flights that benefit from the derogation ("exempted flights") 18/04/2018 - Step by step instructions 20/11/2018 - COM (2018) 697 - Proposal for a Decision of the European Parliament and Council derogating temporarily from Directive 2003/87/EC establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community.
Main EU ETS and aviation legislation.
19/11/2008 - Directive 2008/101/EC - Amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community 13/10/2003 - Directive 2003/87/EC - Establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community and amending Council Directive 96/61/EC.
26/02/2018 - EEA-wide list of aircraft operators 20/07/2018 - EEA JC Decision 93/2018 - has incorporated the Commission Decision on the Union–wide quantity of allowances for aviation into the EEA agreement and has established EEA-wide quantities of allowances for aviation 01/07/2018 - EEA JC Decision 87/2018 - has incorporated the Commission Decision on Union-wide historical aviation emissions into the EEA agreement and has established an EEA-wide figure for historical aviation emissions 20/04/2018 - Reglement 394/2018: List of aircraft operators further to the expansion of the Union emission trading scheme to EEA-EFTA countries 07/03/2018 - Commission Decision 2018/149/EU - Historical aviation emissions pursuant to Article 3c(4) of Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community 08/06/2009 - Commission Decision 2009/450/EC - Detailed interpretation of the aviation activities listed in the Annex I to Directive 2003/87/EC 16/04/2009 - Commission Decision 2009/339/EC - Inclusion of monitoring and reporting guidelines for emissions and tonne-kilometre data from aviation activities.
Process for the inclusion of aviation in the EU Emissions Trading System.
19/09/2008 - COM/2008/0548 - Communication on the European Parliament's amendments to the Council's Common Position 08/07/2008 - 2006/0304(COD) - Resolution of the European Parliament on the Council common position on the Commission's proposal 22/04/2008 - COM/2008/221 - Communication of the European Commission on the Council's common position 18/04/2008 - 2006/0304(COD) - Common Position of the Council on the proposal 20/12/2007 - Political agreement reached by the Environment Ministers on the Council's first reading position on the Commission's proposal 13/11/2007 - First reading position of the European Parliament on the Commission's proposal 10/10/2007 - Opinion of the Committee of the Regions stating it agrees with the Commission that aviation should be included in the ETS 08/06/2007 - Council Conclusions on the position to be taken by EU Member States at the ICAO Assembly in September 2007 in relation to the inclusion of aviation in the EU Emissions Trading System 31/05/2007 - Opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee welcoming the Commission's proposal as a "carefully considered and pragmatic approach" to address emissions from aviation 20/12/2006 - Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community 04/07/2006 - Resolution of the European Parliament in response to the Commission's Communication 04/2006 - Opinion of the European Economic and Social Commitee on the Commission's Communication 16/12/2005 - European Council conclusions 12/2005 - Supportive conclusions of the Environment Council 27/09/2005 - Communication of the European Commission outlining plans to reduce the impact of aviation on climate change.
04/2006 - Final report of the Aviation working group bringing together experts from Member States and industry, consumer and environmental organisations 2005-2006 - Background documents and minutes from working group meetings.
Other useful documents.
02/12/2018 - Study: Possible legal arrangements to implement a global market based measure for international aviation emissions 25/03/2018 - ETS Aviation small emitters: Cost assessment of applying EU ETS on aviation small emitters and analysis of improvement potential by simplifications, alternative thresholds and alternative means of regulation (Summary) 20/12/2006 - Summary Impact Assessment 20/12/2006 - Full impact assessment 27/09/2005 - Preliminary impact assessment 07/2005 - Study on the possibility of including aviation in the EU Emissions Trading System 2005 - Report on the public consultation on Reducing the Climate Change Impact of Aviation from 11 March until 6 May 2005.
The legal case of ATA against the EU ETS.
21/12/2018 - Documents related to the ATA case against the EU ETS Faq.
Open all questions.
الأسئلة & أمب؛ Answers: Proposal for a Regulation amending the EU Emissions Trading System for aviation (February 2017)
Frequently Asked Questions on the 2018-2018 Regulation amending the EU Emissions Trading System for aviation (May 2018)
أسئلة مكررة. Free allocation from the Special Reserve (March 2018)
الأسئلة & أمب؛ Answers on historic aviation emissions and the inclusion of aviation in the EU's Emission Trading System (EU ETS)
Why are historic aviation emissions important for aviation's inclusion in the EU ETS?
Historic aviation emissions are the basis for calculating the cap on aviation emissions applied when the sector is included in the EU ETS from January 2018. Today's decision by the European Commission publishes the mean average of the annual emissions for the years 2004, 2005 and 2006 of all flights that would be covered by the EU ETS performed by air carriers to and from European airports. Based on this average annual historical aviation emissions for the period 2004-2006, the number of aviation allowances to be created in 2018 amounts to 212,892,052 tonnes (97% of historic aviation emissions), and the number of aviation allowances to be created each year from 2018 onwards amounts to 208,502,525 tonnes (95% of historic aviation emissions).
How were historic aviation emissions calculated?
The Commission has been assisted by Eurocontrol – the European organisation for the safety of air navigation. The comprehensive air traffic data contained in Eurocontrol's databases from the Central Route Charges Office (CRCO) and the Central Flow Management Unit (CFMU) were considered the best available data for calculation of the historic emissions. These provide among other things a calculation of the actual route length for each individual flight. Emissions were then calculated on a flight-by-flight basis using the ANCAT 3 (Abatement of Nuisances Caused by Air Transport) methodology and the CASE (Calculation of Emissions by Selective Equivalence) methodology.
In addition to Eurocontrol's data, the Commission also used information on actual fuel consumption from almost 30 aircraft operators of different types and sizes. This data was for aircraft types that were responsible for 93% of emissions in the base years.
Thirdly, additional calculations were carried out to account for fuel consumption associated with the use of the auxiliary power units (APUs). APUs are small engines that are used to provide lighting and air conditioning when the aircraft is stationary at airports. They are used when the aircraft is not connected to ground source electrical power and ventilation services. The approach taken was first to determine the average APU fuel consumption for different aircraft types. The individual emission factors of APU fuel consumption were then extrapolated to calculate total APU emissions applying a process which took into account the actual share of fuel burn for the flights under the EU ETS of each aircraft type and the use of ground power in airports. The emissions corresponding to the resulting total APU fuel consumption were included in the historical aviation emissions for each of the years 2004, 2005 and 2006.
Why was the 2004-2006 period chosen as a baseline for aviation emissions?
The 2004-06 baseline period is defined in the legislation on the inclusion of aviation in the EU ETS. The baseline period for aviation allocation under the EU ETS is different from the 1990 baseline for the EU's overall reduction commitment as it takes into account the significant growth in aviation over the last 15 years.
Why has there been a delay in publishing historic aviation emissions?
This decision has been adopted later than originally foreseen in order to spend more time collating data on the historic emissions. Additional studies were done to increase the accuracy of the estimations of historic aviation emissions, in particular in relation to the fuel used by auxiliary power units (APU). Together with the support from Eurocontrol and contribution from aviation sector, a methodology to assess the APU was developed and the fuel consultation by APU was estimated. This figure was then added to the flight based CO2 emissions.
The subsequent steps foreseen in the implementation of the Directive are to determine free allocations to aircraft operators and the volume of allowances to be auctioned.
How will allocations per aircraft operator be calculated?
82% of the allowances will be given for free to aircraft operators and 15% of the CO2 allowances are allocated by auctioning. The remaining 3% will be allocated to a special reserve for later distribution to fast growing airlines and new entrants into the market.
The free allowances will be allocated by a benchmarking process which measures the activity of each operator in 2018 in terms of the number of passengers and freight that they carry and the total distance travelled. The benchmark should be published by 30 September 2018.
Member states have agreed that all revenues from auctioning should be used to tackle climate change including in the transport sector.
Will the cap on aviation emissions be affected by the Icelandic volcanic ash cloud in 2018?
The events from the Icelandic volcano in 2018 will have no effect whatsoever on the total size of the emissions cap for aviation under the EU ETS or the total number of allowances that will be allocated free of charge to aircraft operators.
We have not seen data to suggest that the impact of the ash cloud will have a material impact on the distribution of free allowances between aircraft operators. Redistribution might occur if certain airlines had to cancel a greater proportion of flights then others, while the vast majority of operators have been impacted by the flight restrictions resulting from the volcanic ash cloud. Indeed all the estimations that we have seen confirm that distributional impacts are very small.
For the regulator to change or adapt the 2018 benchmarking year for the allocation of free allowances to aircraft operators, it would require a change in primary EU legislation. Adopting such legislation usually takes 2 years and there are no plans to start this process.
Which airlines and routes will be affected by the EU ETS?
The EU ETS will cover any aircraft operator, whether EU- or foreign-based, operating international flights on routes to, from or between EU airports. All airlines will thus be treated equally. Very light aircraft will not be covered. Military, police, customs and rescue flights, flights on state and government business, and training or testing flights will also be exempted.
To reduce administrative costs, each operator will be administered by a single Member State regarding emissions from the total of its flights to, from and within the EU.
The list of aircraft operators that may be covered by the system includes over 4000 operators. The list has been created with the support of Eurocontrol and was based on actual flight information; it was last updated in February 2018 to take account of all changes that happened in 2018.
Aviation is an international business – why not conduct emissions trading at global level?
The EU is the strongest advocate for global action to reduce climate impacts of aviation. States have not been able to agree on a common global system through either the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) or the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO). In the Resolution on climate change adopted at its most recent Assembly in October 2018, states in ICAO called for further work to explore the feasibility of a global market-based measure. The Resolution also recognized that states may take action prior to 2020. The EU ETS provides a good model for applying market-based measures to aviation. Development of other national programmes covering international aviation, compatible with the EU ETS, are a pragmatic way in which global action can be implemented.
What about the litigation by some US airlines against the EU Directive?
While a number of airlines support action by the EU to address the climate change impacts from aviation, a challenge to the EU Directive has been launched by a number of US airlines. This has been referred to the European Court of Justice, and the European Commission, European Parliament, Council and a number of Member States have submitted observations, in addition to other organisations intervening in the case. The airlines involved are complying with the Directive's requirements in full pending the resolution of this challenge.
What will the effect be on aviation emissions?
The environmental impact of including aviation in the EU ETS will be significant because aviation emissions, which are currently growing rapidly, will be capped at below their average level in 2004-2006. By 2020 it is estimated that a total of 183 million tonnes of CO2 will be saved per year on the flights covered, a 46% reduction compared with business as usual. This is equivalent, for instance, to twice Austria's annual greenhouse gas emissions from all sources. Some of these reductions are likely to be made by airlines themselves. However, participation in the EU system will also give them other options: buying additional allowances on the market – i.e. paying other participants to reduce their emissions - or investing in emission-saving projects carried out under the Kyoto Protocol's flexible mechanisms. Providing aviation with these options does not reduce the environmental impact of the proposal since the climate impact of emission reductions is the same regardless of where they are made.
Will ticket prices increase?
Including aviation in the EU ETS will not directly affect or regulate air transport tickets. However, aircraft operators may have to invest in more efficient planes or buy emission allowances in the market in addition to those allocated to them. The impact on ticket prices will probably be minor. Assuming airlines fully pass on these extra costs to customers, by 2020 the ticket price for a return flight within the EU could rise by between €1.8 and €9. Due to their higher environmental impact, long-haul trips could increase by somewhat more depending on the journey length. For example a return flight to New York at current carbon prices of around €15 might cost an additional €12. However, ticket price increases are in any case expected to be significantly lower than the extra costs airlines have passed on to consumers due to world oil price rises in recent years. Including aviation in the EU ETS will also have a smaller impact on prices than if the same environmental improvement were to be achieved through other measures such as a fuel tax or an emissions charge.
How big is EU aviation’s contribution to climate change?
Direct emissions from aviation account for about 3% of the EU’s total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The large majority of these emissions comes from international flights, i.e. flights between two Member States or between a Member State and a non-EU country. This figure does not include indirect warming effects, such as those from NOx emissions, contrails and cirrus cloud effects. The overall impact is therefore estimated to be higher. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has estimated that aviation’s total impact is about 2 to 4 times higher than the effect of its past CO2 emissions alone. Recent EU research results indicate that this ratio may be somewhat smaller (around 2 times). None of these estimates take into account the uncertain but potentially very significant effects of cirrus clouds.
EU emissions from international aviation are increasing fast – doubling since 1990 – as air travel becomes cheaper without its environmental costs being addressed. For example, someone flying from London to New York and back generates roughly the same level of emissions as the average person in the EU does by heating their home for a whole year. Emissions are forecast to continue growing for the foreseeable future.
Emissions from aviation are higher than from certain entire sectors covered by the EU ETS, for example refineries and steel production. When aviation joins the EU ETS it is forecast to be the second largest sector in terms of emissions, second only to electricity generation.
ما هي الخطوات التالية؟
Airlines have been monitoring their emissions during 2018, and are required to verify and report these emissions to their administering Member States by 31 March 2018. By that same date, airlines may also apply for free allocations of emissions allowances on the basis of their activities in 2018. Based on information submitted by the Member States, the European Commission will calculate the benchmark that will define how many free allowances aircraft operators will receive. This benchmark decision will be published by 30 September 2018.
By end September the Commission will also publish the emissions cap and the percentages of allowances to be: auctioned; given for free; and allocated to the special reserve.
Who is an aircraft operator?
The definition in Article 3(o) of the EU ETS Directive determines who is an "aircraft operator" for the purposes of the EU ETS. This definition refers to a natural or legal person which operates an aircraft at the time it performs an aviation activity specified in Annex I to the EU ETS Directive (i.e. a flight departure or a flight arrival at an aerodrome in the territory of the EU). If the identity of the operator cannot be ascertained then the aircraft owner is deemed to be the operator unless the owner identifies the relevant operator.
From what moment do aircraft operators have to comply with EU ETS requirements?
The legal requirements of the EU ETS apply when an aircraft operator first performs an aviation activity in Annex I of the EU ETS Directive which is not covered by any of the exemptions in that Annex. The specific obligations which an operator needs to fulfil are explained in FAQs 3.1and 3.2 below.
From what moment does an aircraft operator cease having to comply with EU ETS requirements?
An aircraft operator that does not perform any flight activity in Annex I of the EU ETS Directive for a complete calendar Year X is not required to comply with EU ETS requirements for that calendar year. However, verified emissions reports and the surrender of allowances will be required in Year X in respect of any relevant flight activity performed in the calendar year X-1.
How will operators and their flight activities be identified?
Annex XV of the Monitoring Decision states in Part 2 that for the purpose of identifying the aircraft operator defined by Article 3(o) of the EU ETS Directive, the ICAO designator in box 7 of a flight plan is to be used or, in the absence of such a designator, the aircraft registration marking is to be used. It appears that there is no uniform system, criteria or procedure for the application and issue of ICAO designator codes. So that it is unclear whether all operators will have a designator or whether aircraft operators within the same corporate group will share the same designator or have separate and distinct ICAO designators. Further complications may arise in identifying an aircraft operator due to the various types of aircraft leasing, the use of management companies, or the use of multiple ICAO designators by the same aircraft operator. Where the aircraft operator cannot be identified then the legislation stipulates that the owner will be responsible unless the owner can identify the relevant operator. Naturally, complications will not arise if each operator possesses and uses its own distinct ICAO designator.
Are companies in the same corporate group to be considered as a single operator?
The relevant test in the EU ETS Directive for an aircraft operator is simply that there is a legal person responsible for flights arriving or departing from EU aerodromes which are not covered by the exemptions in Annex I of the EU ETS Directive. Individual companies that have been duly incorporated each possess their own distinct legal personality. It follows, therefore, that each company responsible for flights covered by Annex I is a different aircraft operator for the purposes of the EU ETS Directive even if they are in the same corporate group of companies.
In addition, Article 18(a) of the EU ETS Directive identifies an administering Member State, in relation to a particular commercial aircraft operator, by reference to the mandatory operating licence issued to that operator by the Member State concerned. There is a presumption, therefore, that each legal person issued with an operating licence by a Member State should be treated as a distinct and separate aircraft operator.
Can an operator have multiple ICAO designators?
There is no explicit requirement for an aircraft operator to have a unique identifier. Recital 15 of the Aviation Directive states that an aircraft operator may be identified by the use of an ICAO designator or any other recognised designator used in the identification of a flight and that if the identity of the operator is not known, then the owner of the aircraft should be deemed to be the operator unless proven otherwise. The crucial point for the operation of the EU emissions trading scheme is that the activities of a given aircraft operator can be attributed unequivocally to that operator. As such, and given the absence in Community law any requirement to be identified by a single and unique identifier, it follows that there is no legal obstacle for an aircraft operator to be identified by multiple ICAO designators so long as these are associated with a single aircraft operator. Obviously, it is administratively simpler if an operator uses only a single identifier when filing its flight plans.
Who is the operator under a "wet lease" arrangement?
Under a wet lease arrangement an aircraft is operated by the lessee for the benefit of the lessor who essentially remains responsible for the state and maintenance of the aircraft i.e. the lessor retains effective control of the flight. The presumption, therefore, is that the lessor is the aircraft operator and that the flight plan will contain the ICAO designator of the lessor/owner or the registration marking of the aircraft. However, the lessor and lessee may agree and indicate alternative responsibility for the flight activity by, for example, using the ICAO designator of the lessee in the flight plan.
Who is the operator under a "dry lease" arrangement?
Under a "dry lease agreement" an aircraft is operated by the lessee under the AOC of the lessees and control of the aircraft effectively passes to the lessee. The presumption, therefore, is that the lessee is the operator and the ICAO designator of the lessee should appear in the flight plan.
Can a management company be an aircraft operator?
Some aircraft operators employ the services of management companies to file flight plans and pay route charges on their behalf. Some management companies also provide services related to the ETS obligations of their clients. However, management companies are not aircraft operators for the purposes of the EU ETS Directive unless they also operate flights covered by Annex I of the EU ETS Directive.
Can a management company represent an aircraft operator regarding the EU ETS?
It is entirely possible for a service company to be empowered to represent an aircraft operator before the competent authorities of the administrating Member State in relation to EU ETS matters. The extent of the powers of the service company will depend upon what is agreed between the operator and the service company.
It is possible, therefore, for a management company to file monitoring reports, and applications for free allowances on behalf of a particular aircraft operator if the management company is duly empowered. The issue of allowances can only be made directly to a registry account held by the aircraft operator. However, the Registries Regulation permits an aircraft operator to nominate an "additional authorised representative" who has limited rights on the account (the exact scope of these limited rights can be set by the account holder). Naturally, administering Member States will wish to be certain about the identity of the aircraft operator represented by a management company.
The Commission also has a duty to ensure the efficient operation of the EU ETS and so it will continue to identify and to include in the list of aircraft operators it publishes those operators who may nonetheless be represented by service companies for the matters relating to the EU ETS.
Are any flights exempted from the EU ETS?
There are several categories of flight which are exempt from the EU ETS. These are contained in Annex I of the EU ETS Directive and include activities such as search & rescue, state flights transporting third countries' Heads of State, Head of Government and Government ministers, police flights amongst others. There are special codes to designate these types of flight which should be inserted into the flight plan which is filed by the operator in order that the flight can be correctly excluded. More information about the types of flight excluded and the associated codes to be inserted in the flight plan can be found in the Annex I Decision1.
Which flights of a commercial operator are considered for the de minimis exemption?
There is a de minimis exemption in subparagraph (j) of Annex I to the EU ETS Directive below which an entity ceases to be an aircraft operator covered by the provisions of the EU ETS. This exemption only applies to commercial air transport operators. Flights may also be provided by commercial operators without remuneration but this factor is not relevant when determining whether the de minimis threshold is exceeded.
In summary, all flights of a commercial operator which are not covered by any of the other exemptions in Annex I of the EU ETS Directive must be considered when assessing whether the de minimis threshold is exceeded.
The aircraft operators list.
What is the role of the list of aircraft operators published by the Commission?
The primary function of the list of aircraft operators published by the Commission is to facilitate the good administration of the EU ETS by providing information on which Member State will be regulating a particular operator. This prevents double regulation.
It must be emphasised that inclusion on the list of aircraft operators published by the Commission is not determinative as to whether a natural or legal person is an aircraft operator. This is clearly spelled out in Part 1 paragraph (3) of the Annex to the Annex I Decision. Moreover, a separate information note has been published on the Europa web site on the role of the list whose primary function is to facilitate the good administration of the EU ETS by informing regulators and aircraft operators about who is regulating whom. Conversely, aircraft operators that are on the list do not fall under the EU ETS if they only perform aviation activities that are exempt under Annex I to Directive 2003/87/EC.
It is possible that the list published by the Commission contains inaccuracies or does not reflect the most up to date information about aircraft operators' activities. The Commission will update the list from time to time and where appropriate bring inaccuracies to the attention of competent authorities. Member States are not bound only to regulate those entities contained in the list published by the Commission but have some flexibility to regulate "off-list", for example, where a Member State issues an operating licence to a new operator.
What changes will be made to the list when the Commission updates annually?
The Commission intends to publish an updated list each year around the beginning of February on the basis of the best available information. The aim of this update is to include new aircraft operators that have undertaken flight activities covered by Annex I of the EU ETS Directive in the previous calendar year. In addition, this represents an opportunity to correct manifest errors in the designation of operators or administering Member States.
It is not so important to remove operators that cease their activities given that obligations arise under the ETS from performing relevant flight activities in Annex I of the EU ETS Directive rather than from inclusion on the list. However, to keep the list manageable administratively, where operators have clearly ceased to be covered by the ETS and will not return to it because, for example, they are no longer in existence or because they have rescinded their operating licence, then the Commission will remove such operators from the list at the time of its update. It should be remembered that the activities of some operators may be such that in one year they are not covered by the ETS but activity levels may increase so that in subsequent years they are covered. It does not make sense to amend the list in such circumstances.
I use a service company to file flight plans and pay route charges and I am not on the list – how do I get assigned to a Member State?
Airspace users using services companies for flight planning and payment of route charges may not necessarily be included in the list.
Whilst an aircraft operator is defined by Article 3(o) of the EU ETS Directive, in practice the call sign used for Air Traffic Control (ATC) purposes has been used. The call sign appears in field 7 of the flight plan. The call sign either starts with the 3-letter ICAO designator of the operator or, if not available, represents the registration marking of the aircraft. In the latter case, the aircraft operator is identified by the operator indicated in field 18 of the flight plan or the operator identified by EUROCONTROL’s Central Route Charges Office (CRCO) with alternate sources of information (such as States’ registries or States’ administrations).
An airspace user may not appear as a distinct aircraft operator in the current list if all of its flights have been (a) operated under the ICAO designator of a service company; or (b) identified by the aircraft registration marking and the service company has indicated to the CRCO that it is responsible for the payment of route charges. In such cases, all the flights of the airspace user have been attributed to the service company.
I use service companies for air navigation services. How do I ensure that future flights are not attributed to a service company?
If an aircraft operator has a 3-letter ICAO designator, the aircraft operator should ensure that this code is used in its flight plans or that box 18 of the flight plan indicates its ICAO designator as the operator of that flight. Alternatively, the operator can place the registration marking of the aircraft in field 18 of the flight plan and submit to EUROCONTROL an annual declaration, including information on the composition of their fleet.
Subsidiaries of my company are not on the list, why is this?
The aircraft operator responsible for a flight has been identified on the basis of the information inserted in field 7 of the flight plan. Consequently, flights of subsidiaries operated under the ICAO 3-letter designator of the parent company will have been allocated to the parent company. Also, subsidiaries operating flights under their own ICAO 3-letter designator may also have been allocated to the parent company when the parent company took responsibility of the flights for air navigation charges purposes.
If the parent company has been identified as the aircraft operator for all the flights of a subsidiary, the latter will not appear as a distinct aircraft operator in the current list as there are no flights attributed to it. Aircraft operators which are subsidiary companies should ensure that they identify their flights using a separate ICAO designator and/or that they include all aircraft under their company in the fleet declaration submitted to EUROCONTROL’s Central Route Charges Office (CRCO).
I should not be on the list because I am a commercial operator and should be exempt under point (j) of the Annex 1 of the EU ETS Directive ("de minimis")
Two conditions need to be fulfilled in order for an aircraft operator to benefit from the de minimis exemption under subparagraph (j) of Annex I to the EU ETS Directive:
the operator is a commercial air transport operator; AND the aircraft operator operated less than 243 flights per consecutive period of four months (Jan-Apr, May-Aug, Sep-Dec) or emitted less than 10,000 tonnes of CO2 annually.
If these conditions are met, the most probable reason for inclusion in the list is that for its present functions EUROCONTROL does not retain comprehensive records about AOCs for all operators flying in the EU region. As a result, EUROCONTROL may not be aware of the commercial status of particular operators (as defined in Article 3 of the EU ETS Directive). When this AOC information is missing, the operator is deemed not to be a commercial air transport operator.
An operator may also be included in the list because the last condition above is not satisfied. This means that according to the air traffic information held by EUROCONTROL and the CO2 emissions estimations produced by EUROCONTROL, in any of the years since 2006 both of the following conditions were fulfilled:
in one of these years, the annual CO2 emissions were estimated to be above 10,000 tonnes and in at least one of the four month periods Jan-Apr, May-Aug, or Sep-Dec of the same year you operated at least 243 flights;
If your AOC contains information confirming that you are a commercial air transport operator, please provide a copy of it to EUROCONTROL. Please also keep your competent authority informed that you have sent your AOC to EUROCONTROL.
For non EU operators it may not be possible in all cases to determine your commercial status from your national certificate that is equivalent to the AOC (e.g. US Air Carrier Certificates). This is due to differences in the types of information that is contained in these certificates. However, you are still welcome to submit a copy of your certificate to EUROCONTROL, who may contact you for additional supporting documents.
Why am I on the list when I operate aircraft of less than 5.7 tonnes maximum take-off mass?
The maximum take-off mass that has been used to determine whether flights should be exempted under subparagraph (h) of Annex I to the EU ETS Directive was that held by EUROCONTROL for the calculation of route charges. If you consider that all the flights you have operated were flown only with aircraft of less than 5.7 tonnes, please discuss this issue with your competent authority. The Commission is not in a position to decide whether an operator is exempt from the EU ETS. You may also wish to contact EUROCONTROL for further information.
I am on the list but I only operate flights that are exempted under subparagraphs (a) to (i) of Annex I to Directive 2003/87/EC, e.g. training or circular flights.
If you are on the list it means that you have been identified as the aircraft operator of at least one flight since 2006 that was not considered exempted according to Annex I of the EU ETS Directive.
This situation could be the case for ferrying flights operated, for instance, during the delivery of the aircraft or for bringing it to or back from maintenance facilities. Such ferrying and positioning flights are not exempt from EU ETS. If you consider that all the flights you have operated are exempted under either of the subparagraphs of Annex I of the EU ETS Directive, please discuss this with your competent authority. The Commission is not in a position to decide whether an operator is exempt from the EU ETS. You may wish to contact EUROCONTROL for further information.
I am on the list but I have never flown to, from or within the EU.
If you are on the list it means that you have been identified as the aircraft operator of at least one flight since 2006 that was flown to, from, or within the EU and that was not considered exempted according to Annex I of the EU ETS Directive.
This can be the case for ferrying flights operated, for instance, during the delivery of the aircraft or when bringing it to or back from maintenance facilities. If you consider that you have never operated any flight to, from or within the EU, or you do not plan to have any flights in the future, please discuss this with your competent authority. You may also wish to contact EUROCONTROL for further information.
The name of the operator is not correct.
The name of the operator is the name used by EUROCONTROL’s Central Route Charges Office (CRCO) when establishing the invoices for route charges. If you wish to correct the name of the operator on the list, please notify EUROCONTROL about the name change, providing sufficient evidence as to the correct name of the aircraft operator.
The operator is no longer in operation.
The list has been defined on the air traffic information since 2006. An operator has been included in the list as long as it had operated at least one eligible flight in those years.
EUROCONTROL can determine when the most recent flight was flown by a given operator but does not hold comprehensive information on whether such operator is still in operation. If you consider that an operator should NOT be on the list because it does not exist any longer or because it has ceased or suspended its aviation actives in the EU, please inform the competent authority about this. Please also notify the European Commission by sending a message to:
You may wish to contact EUROCONTROL for further information (e.g. the date of the most recent flight in the EU).
The administering Member State is incorrect according to the EU operating licence.
The EU ETS Directive stipulates the administering Member State for any given operator in receipt of an operating licence in the EU is the Member State that issued the operating licence. Unfortunately, a complete and comprehensive database of all the operating licences granted by Member States in accordance with the provisions of Council Regulation (EC) No. 1008/2008 is not available, nor does EUROCONTROL hold this information. There is no definitive way, therefore, for the Commission or EUROCONTROL to check which Member State has issued AOCs and operating licences to particular operators and so there may be discrepancies in the list.
If you possess an operating licence from an EU Member State, but in the list you are allocated to a different Member State, please provide a copy of your operating licence to EUROCONTROL.
The administering Member State is incorrect as the operator does not fly (any more) from (or to) such State.
The administering Member State has been determined on the basis of the information available for the operator’s base year as defined by Article 18a(5) of the EU ETS Directive. The fact that an operator no longer operates or does not fly mainly from (or to) aerodromes located in such a State does not change the designation of the administering Member State.
Subsidiaries companies are allocated to different EU Member States, how can I avoid this?
Different companies operating flights covered by Annex I of the EU ETS Directive are considered as separate aircraft operators (see question 1.5). Administering Member States are attributed either on the basis of which Member State issued the operating licence or the State with the greatest attributed emissions for that operator. It is for the parent company to decide how to organise its corporate structure and flight activities in relation to the administration of the EU ETS and the allocation of administering Member States.
Can an operator on the list be reattributed to a different administering Member State within the same trading period?
Article 18a(1) of the EU ETS Directive sets the rules on the initial attribution of an aircraft operator to an administering Member State. Attribution is done on the basis of which Member State has issued the operating licence or which is the Member State with the greatest attributed emissions from flights performed by that operator in the base year (2006).
However reattribution of an operator to a new Member State may be necessary if it turns out that the initial attribution does not meet the conditions set under Art 18a(1) of the EU ETS Directive.
Reattribution may be necessary where:
the Commission together with EUROCONTROL changes the methodology used for the generation of the list of aircraft operators in order to improve the list's accuracy and better reflect the requirements of the Directive (such reattribution will not occur frequently after the initial set up of the scheme); there is an error in the list as a result of incomplete or inaccurate information held by the Commission or EUROCONTROL; the scope of the EU ETS is expanded to other countries, for instance the full integration of the EEA-EFTA countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway) into the EU ETS.
Reattribution is different from the transfer of aircraft operators based on Article 18a(2) of the EU ETS Directive. Such transfer occurs where in the first two years of any trading period, none of the attributed aviation emissions from flights performed by an aircraft operator without an operating licence granted by a Member State are attributed to its administering Member State. That aircraft operator must be transferred to another administering Member State in respect of the next period. The new administering Member State will be the Member State with the greatest estimated attributed aviation emissions from flights performed by that aircraft operator during the first two years of the previous period.
When an aircraft operator's administering Member State changes, can monitoring plans of an aircraft operator be transferred to a new administering Member State?
After an aircraft operator is reattributed on the basis of Article 18a(1) or transferred on the basis of Article 18a(2) of the EU ETS Directive to a new administering Member State, the monitoring plan will have to be transferred from one administering Member State to another, or resubmitted by an operator to the new administering MS. This process has to be agreed between the Member States on a case by case basis, taking account of the views of the aircraft operator affected and seeking to minimize the financial costs and administrative burden to aircraft operator.
The timing of the transfer or resubmission of the monitoring plan should also be agreed between the Member States and the operator.
What does the aircraft operator identification number signify?
The list now contains a unique identification number (code) for each aircraft operator. This code will be used for compliance purposes. The code coincides with the number used by EUROCONTROL’s Central Route Charges Office (CRCO) for identifying airspace users in the route charges system. This identification number is shown in the reference of air navigation charges bills.
Why am I identified only by my ICAO designator or aircraft tail number?
In the list, a number of aircraft operators may be indentified only by their ICAO designator or the registration mark of the plane. The majority of such aircraft operators are associated with flights operated entirely outside of the region for which EUROCONTROL provides the Central Route Charges Office function, such as flights from the French overseas territories to the Americas. In these cases EUROCONTROL does not have full information about the identity of the operator at this stage. In future versions of the list, the intention is to replace these notations with a complete company name.
Obligations and procedures for new entrants.
What does a new operator with an EU operator's licence have to do under the EU ETS?
For new entrants the EU ETS requirements will start from the moment an operator performs an aviation activity laid down in Annex I of the EU ETS Directive i.e. it departs or arrives at an aerodrome in the EU. The Administering Member State responsible for all aspects of administering the ETS in respect of the operator is the Member State that issued the operating licence. The following steps will need to be followed by the new aircraft operator and administering Member State for an activity which commences in Year X:
Operators will have to submit a monitoring plan to the administering Member State as soon as possible. The administering Member State should approve the monitoring plan and the operator should monitor its emissions according the methods in the monitoring plan, the Monitoring Decision and relevant aspects of the Member States national rules and procedures. The operator should draft an emissions report for the calendar year X and have it verified by a verifier at the beginning of year X+1. The operator submits the verified emissions report to the administering Member State by 31 March of year X+1.
The operator must surrender sufficient emissions allowances to cover its emissions in calendar year X.
What does a new operator without an EU operator's licence have to do under the EU ETS?
The same basic procedure in 3.1 above should be followed. However, the administering Member State is determined according to the greatest attributed emissions in the first year of operation which may not be immediately clear and may not be established definitively until the operator is included in a revised list published by the Commission. As such, the operator cannot submit a monitoring plan for approval to its administering Member State.
In such circumstances, the operator is required to determine its emissions with retrospective effect for the time it falls under the scope of EU ETS. For the period when it has not been attributed to an administering Member State, the operator can determine its emissions according to the approach in section 5 of Annex XIV of the Monitoring Decision to fill "data gaps". This allows an operator to determine its emissions which are missing for reasons beyond its control by a simplified method.
Where the administering Member State is clear from the nature of the operator's flight activity, operators can submit monitoring plans on an informal basis to the administering Member State before formal inclusion on a revised list of operators published the Commission.
Allocation of emissions allowances.
Do competent authorities need to assess the applications made by aircraft operators for free allowances?
An operator could apply to its administering Member State by 31 March 2018 for free allowances and provide verified tonne-kilometre activity reports to support the application. Before forwarding the applications to the Commission by 30 June 2018, the Member State should assess the admissibility of the reports and check for potential irregularities. This could be complemented by inspections of the monitoring activities of the operator during the monitoring year as well as supervision of verifiers. Nonetheless, the Member States should also be able to rely upon the verification process to establish the reliability and correctness of the activity data submitted by the operator.
Should the administering Member State check the eligibility of any application for the allocation of allowances from the special reserve?
Article 3f of the EU ETS Directive permits new operators who commence flight activity after 2018 or operators who experience a growth in tonne-kilometre activity in excess of 18% on average annually between 2018 and 2018 to apply for free allowances from the "special reserve". Any application must be made by 30 June 2018 and be supported by verified tonne-kilometre activity data and documentary proof that the operator meets the either of the two eligibility criteria. Before forwarding the application to the Commission (within 6 months) the administering Member State should assess compliance with the eligibility criteria using the material provided by the operator in support of the application as required by Article 3f(3) of the EU ETS Directive. The Commission may provide further guidance on how to perform this assessment at a later date.
Allowances from the special reserve will not allocated for the continuation of activities carried out in whole or in part by another aircraft operator. ماذا يعني هذا؟
Article 3f(1) states that allowances in the special reserve will not be allocated in respect of the flight activities of a new operator or the sharply increased growth of an existing operator if this new activity or increase in activity is a continuation of the activity (either in part or in whole) of another aircraft operator.
The above provision is designed to prevent the free allocation of allowances for flight activities that have already been the subject of a free allowance allocation albeit to a different operator. As such the competent authorities in the administering Member States will need information to establish that:
There has been no acquisition by share sale of another aircraft operator or acquisition of business assets from another operator; There has been no internal corporate reorganisation or creation of a subsidiary company that involves the transfer of flight activity within the corporate group; There has been no restructuring as a consequence of an insolvency, scheme of arrangement or bankruptcy resulting in the creation of a new operator performing flight activity previously undertaken by another operator or the transfer of significant flight activity to an existing operator; There has been no outsourcing or leasing arrangements whereby existing flight activity of an operator in receipt of free allowances is transferred to a third party who becomes the effective operator of the flights.
What is a small emitter and why is there a distinction?
A small emitter is a non-commercial air transport operator (i) whose flights in aggregate emit less than 25 000 tonnes of CO2 per annum; or (ii) which operates fewer than 243 flights per period for 3 consecutive 4-month periods. A small emitter can take advantage of a simplified procedure to monitor its emissions of CO2 from its flight activity. This procedure is described in Section 4 of Annex XIV of the Monitoring Decision and involves the use of a calculation tool developed by EUROCONTROL or similar tool developed by other organisations.
Aircraft operators emitting less than 25 000 tonnes of CO2 per year, both commercial and non-commercial, can choose an alternative to verification by an independent verifier. The alternative involves determining their emissions by using the small emitters tool approved under Commission Regulation No 606/2018. In such cases, data used for determining emissions must originate from Eurocontrol. As a result, aircraft operators taking advantage of this simpler method need to use data from the ETS Support Facility, without any modification, Of the two types of small emitters defined by Article 54 of Regulation No 601/2018, this simplification only applies to aircraft operators operating flights with total annual emissions lower than 25 000 tonnes CO2 per year. It should be noted that the exemption threshold of 25 000 tonnes CO2 per year is based on the full scope of the EU ETS as defined in Annex I to the EU ETS Directive.
Penalties & enforcement of the EU ETS - Aviation legislation.
Why are penalties applied in the Member States not harmonised?
Article 16 of the EU ETS Directive establishes a limited harmonisation of the financial penalties that will be paid by operators that fail to surrender the necessary number of emissions allowances (i.e. €100 per tonne of CO2). More generally, the co-legislators decided that the Member States should adopt rules on penalties for breaches of national legislation which transpose the Directive's requirements and that these penalties should be " effective, proportionate and dissuasive ". This formulation allows the Member States to choose between criminal or administrative penalties and provides flexibility to implement a system of penalties that best fits with their national legal systems whilst respecting the obligation to treat breaches of Community law in a manner that is similar to a breach of a wholly national rule or law. The degree of harmonization decided by the co-legislators is arguably sufficient whilst at the same time respecting the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality by which action is to be taken only in so far as it cannot be sufficiently taken by the Member States alone and does not exceed what is absolutely necessary to achieve the desired objective.
Further harmonisation of administrative penalties could be envisaged under the EU ETS Directive but that would have to be decided by the co-legislators following a proposal from the Commission. There is also scope for establishing certain common criminal offences and penalties under the new Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union but again this will require a proposal from the Commission or a quarter of the Member States.
Is there mutual recognition of financial penalties in the Member States?
The Council has put into a place a framework for the mutual recognition of financial penalties in the form of Framework Decision 2005/214/JHA. This means that financial penalties due to offences arising from breaches of instruments adopted to comply with Community law that are committed in one Member State (the issuing State) can be recognised and enforced in another Member State (the executing State). A central authority is responsible in each Member State for the administration of the scheme. Monies obtained from the enforcement go the executing Member State unless there is a contrary agreement between the two Member States concerned.
Extension of the EU ETS to the EEA EFTA states (Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway)
Why was the scope of the EU ETS extended to the EEA-EFTA countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway)?
The Agreement on the European Economic Area (EEA), which entered into force in 1994, is an agreement between the 27 EU Member States and three of the Member States of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). The latter states, which are Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, are collectively called the 'EEA-EFTA countries'. The EEA Agreement provides for the extension of selected EU legislation to the EEA-EFTA countries.
The EEA-EFTA countries have been part of the EU ETS since October 2007, when the EU ETS Directive was incorporated into the EEA Agreement. The aviation part of the EU ETS was incorporated into the EEA Agreement by EEA Joint Committee Decision 6/2018.
What additional flights are covered by the EU ETS following the extension?
The extension of the scheme entails that in addition to the 27 EU Member States the EU ETS covers also the 3 EEA-EFTA countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway). As a result, flights which depart from or arrive in an aerodrome situated in the territory of an EEA-EFTA country, collectively called 'EEA additional flights', are subject to EU ETS rules. More precisely, EEA additional flights are:
Domestic flights within the EEA-EFTA countries; Flights between the EEA-EFTA countries; Flights between the EEA-EFTA countries and third countries outside the EEA.
The list of exemptions from the scope of the EU ETS in Annex I of the EU ETS Directive also applies for the EEA additional flights.
Will same rules be applied for the EEA additional flights as for other flights covered by the EU ETS?
Equal treatment of aircraft operators is a fundamental element of the EU ETS for aviation. The EU and the EEA-EFTA countries therefore have ensured that the design of the scheme is not altered by the extension to the EEA-EFTA countries. In particular, the same benchmark and harmonized allocation rules are applied for the EEA additional flights as for other flights covered by the scheme.
How does the extension impact aircraft operators which are already covered by the scope of the EU ETS?
Aircraft operators which are already covered by the EU ETS are only be affected by the extension of the system if they perform EEA additional flights (see answer to question 8.2). These operators have to include their EEA additional flights into their monitoring and reporting activities.
These operators should have already updated their monitoring plans to cover their EEA additional flights.
Operators who update their monitoring plans should notify their competent authority without delay of any changes made. In case of substantial changes to the monitoring methodology, the operators need to submit their updated plans for re-approval. Substantial changes are described in the EU ETS monitoring and reporting guidelines and include:
Change of the average reported annual emissions which causes the operator to exceed the threshold for applying tier 1 uncertainty for the determination of fuel consumption; Change in the number of flights or in the total annual emissions which cause the aircraft operator to exceed the threshold for small emitters, so that the operator is no longer eligible to benefit from the simplified monitoring procedures; Substantial changes to the type of fuels used.
How does the extension affect aircraft operators that are exempt from the EU ETS Directive under point (j) of Annex I (de minimis) so far?
If a commercial aircraft operator is exempted from the scope on grounds of point (j) of Annex I of the EU ETS Directive, ( i.e. because it operates either fewer than 243 flights per period for three consecutive four-month periods or flights with total annual emissions lower than 10 000 tonnes per year ( de minimis rule)), the exemption could cease to apply if EEA additional flights cause the aircraft operator to exceed the aforementioned limits. Those aircraft operator should submit monitoring plans as soon as possible to the competent authority in its administering state.
Has the Commission's list of aircraft operators been updated in light of the extension of the EU ETS to the EEA-EFTA countries?
An EEA-wide list of aircraft operators was adopted by the Commission on 20 April 2018. This list:
includes a number of new aircraft operators, which performed EEA-EFTA related flights (see point 8.2) and reattributes certain aircraft operators, previously allocated to one of the 27 EU Member States to an EEA-EFTA country for administration.
How should the change of administrative responsibility between the former administering Member State and an EEA-EFTA country take place?
The criteria set under Article 18a (1) of Directive 2003/87/EC to determine aircraft operator's administering Member State must take into account the extension of the aviation part of the EU emission trading scheme to EEA-EFTA countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway). Thus, certain aircraft operators, previously allocated to one of EU 27 Member States, are allocated to the EEA-EFTA countries for administration. Regulation (EC) No 748/2009 has therefore been amended.
To facilitate a smooth changeover of the affected aircraft operators, the former administering Member State should complete all its obligations related to the aviation activities carried out during the calendar year before the reattribution of an aircraft operator to an EEA-EFTA country took place. The new administering State (Norway or Iceland) will take over the obligations related to the calendar year in which the reattribution took place and for the following calendar years.
The aircraft operator will need to deal with two authorities for the changeover period, as it completes it obligations in relation to aviation activities carried out in the previous year to the former administering Member State and progressively develops its relations with the newly attributed authority.
The key steps are as follows:
The EEA-wide list of aircraft operators reallocates some aircraft operators to Norway and Iceland. Each affected aircraft operator should submit without delay to the new administering State the monitoring plan for annual emissions, the approval of the monitoring plan by the previous administering Member State and the verified emissions report for the year 2018. This should enable the new administering State to administer the aircraft operator relating to its aviation activities performed during the year 2018. Calculating the benchmarks and the auctioning share:
The former administering Member State should submit to the Commission by 30th June 2018 the data from the emissions report for the year 2018 and the verified 2018 report for tonne-kilometre data (the applications for free allowances for the periods 2018 and 2018-2020). Allocation of allowances:
If applicable, each concerned aircraft operator should submit to the new administering State the approved monitoring plan for tonne-kilometre data and the verified report for tonne-kilometre data, accepted by the former administering Member State.
If the former administering Member State has modified the data before submitting to the Commission, it should inform the new administering State about the modifications made.
The new administering State should:
calculate and publish the allocation of allowances for each aircraft operator whose application was submitted to the Commission; and issue by 28 February 2018 and by 28 February of each subsequent year the number of allowances allocated to the respective aircraft operator for that year.
Who can request a postponed timeline for a change of administrative responsibility?
The change of administrative responsibility, from a EU 27 Member State to Iceland or Norway, of those aircraft operators which are marked with an asterisk in the EEA list of operators may be subject to a specific timeline. This is to be agreed in conformity with Decision of the EEA Joint Committee n° 6/2018 of 1 st April 2018 amending Annex XX (Environment) to the EEA Agreement, (published at the OJ L 93 7.04.2018 page 35).
Those aircraft operators, attributed to Iceland and Norway under the EEA list, which are marked with an asterisk, can request to remain under the administration of its former administering Member State until 2020 the latest, as provided in the Decision of the EEA Joint Committee No 6/2018 of 1 st April 2018 amending Annex XX (Environment) to the EEA Agreement.
Such a request can be made by an affected aircraft operator to its former administering Member State within six months from the adoption by the Commission of the EEA-wide list of aircraft operators. The Member State concerned may agree to administer that operator for another year or longer, but only until the end of the trading period in 2020. The EEA-wide list was adopted on 20 th April 2018, thus the requests can be made until 20 th October 2018.
If the former administering Member State agrees to continue administering the aircraft operator concerned, it should inform the Commission about this agreement and indicate the date from which the aircraft operator will be administered by the new administering State.
How will the extension of the EU ETS to the EEA-EFTA countries affect the calculation of historical aviation emissions and total quantity of allowances?
Data from the EEA-EFTA countries will be taken into account when calculating the EEA historical aviation emissions The EU 27 historical aviation emissions will thus increase to reflect the extended scope of the EU ETS. Likewise, the total amount of allowances to be allocated free of charge, the total amount of allowances to be auctioned and the size of the special reserve will increase proportionally.
How are EEA-EFTA countries included in the existing templates?
The following note was added on the Commission's website on aviation:
'Please note that all references to Member States on the templates should be interpreted as including all 30 EEA States. The EEA comprises the 27 EU Member States, Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway.'
In addition to this, references to the EEA-EFTA countries have been added to the list of Member States in several places in the templates:
Where the aircraft operator indicates administering Member States; Where the aircraft operator indicates the state that has accredited the verifier; In the domestic flights emissions table under 9 (c) in the annual emissions report; As state of departure and state of arrival in tables 9 (d) and 9 (e) in the annual emissions report.
Have relevant operators been informed about the extension of the EU ETS to the EEA- EFTA countries?
All commercial aircraft operators registered in Iceland and Norway have been informed about the extension. Information has been sent to the EU Member States administering other operators who are known to be affected by the extension, including a standard letter that can be used to inform these operators. In addition the EEA-EFTA countries, the EFTA Secretariat and the European Commission hosted an information meeting with European and international aviation associations on 11 December 2009 to inform them of the changes.
For further information about the extension, inquiries can be sent to the Environment Agency of Iceland ([email protected]
) or the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority ([email protected]
Monitoring and reporting.
How can the biomass fraction of a blended aviation fuel be determined?
In advance of biofuels becoming more commonly used in aviation, the following approach proposes a solution to monitoring and reporting biofuel used in relation to an EU ETS aviation activity. This approach is based on the understanding that it is currently technically not feasible or within reasonable costs to determine biofuel content at the point of uptake to an aircraft.
The monitoring and reporting guidelines (Commission Decision 2007/589/EC as amended) provide possibility in Annex I Section 13.4 for the aircraft operator to propose an estimation method for approval by the competent authority, where it is technically not feasible or disproportionately expensive to determine the biomass fraction of certain aviation biomass fuels.
In addition, Section 2.3 of the Annex XIV of the monitoring and reporting guidelines provides for the possibility to use fuel purchasing records for the purpose of determination of the biomass content in the fuel.
Therefore, the following type of methodology could be proposed to the competent authority:
The biomass fraction of all biomass based fuel used in an Annex I EU ETS aviation activity will be calculated from the fuel purchase records, which indicate the biomass fraction and net calorific value of the fuel.
It will be important to demonstrate two important criteria in the proposed methodology:
Firstly, the total amount of biomass based fuel claimed for cannot exceed total fuel usage for that operator for Annex I EU ETS aviation activities originating from the airports at which the biofuel is supplied. Secondly, the fraction of biomass in the fuel can not be higher than the maximum allowable (certified) percentage of biomass in the fuel.
The calculation of biofuel use shall be independently verified. In particular the verifier must be satisfied that the percentage of fuel purchased by the aircraft operator which was used in EU ETS Annex I aviation activities has been correctly calculated.
EU to exempt foreign flights from emissions scheme.
BRUSSELS/LONDON (Reuters) - The European Union is set to extend the exclusion of foreign airlines from its emissions trading system to give a United Nations-brokered global deal time to come into effect, two EU sources said.
The move would be welcomed by the airline industry which wants a single, global emissions trading system (ETS) for aviation as opposed to a patchwork of national and regional schemes.
The European Union had ordered foreign carriers to buy credits under its ETS in 2018 but backtracked when countries said it violated their sovereignty and China threatened to cancel plane orders to Airbus Group SE.
It granted airlines operating flights into and out of the EU an exemption until 2018 to give the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) time to craft a global system.
The United Nations body clinched a deal in October, raising hopes that the EU executive would prolong the extension beyond the end of this year when it automatically expires unless the law is changed.
“Expectation is it will be extended,” one of the sources said.
The proposal by the EU executive, the European Commission, will be adopted at the end of January, two sources said.
Another EU source said the proposal was very sensible and would create predictability for operators.
The ICAO deal will be voluntary from 2021 to 2026 and mandatory from 2027 for states with larger aviation industries, prompting criticism from the European Parliament who had called for something more ambitious.
The exemption for foreign carriers could be extended until it is clear the ICAO system is working, one of the sources said.
Another said extending it to 2020-2021 would be a “good start”.
EU lawmakers have said they would push for foreign carriers to be included in the ETS once again if the ICAO deal does not go far enough to curb pollution from airlines.
The EU ETS is a “cap and trade” system in which emissions are capped at certain levels. The deal reached by ICAO in Montreal allows carriers to increase emissions without limit as long as they offset them by purchasing carbon credits from designated environmental projects.
Aviation was excluded from the Paris accord to fight climate change, though the industry produces about 2 percent of carbon dioxide emissions, an amount larger than generated by some industrialized nations.
Editing by Keith Weir.
تأخرت جميع الاقتباسات لمدة 15 دقيقة على الأقل. انظر هنا للحصول على قائمة كاملة من التبادلات والتأخير.
European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS)
Compliance with the EU Emissions Trading Scheme.
View step-by-step instructions which walk operators through the determination of their need to comply with the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and the steps needed to submit the required annual emissions monitoring plan as well as the optional emissions benchmarking plan.
History of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme.
Background information on the inclusion of aviation activity into the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme.
EU Emissions Trading Scheme Resources.
View additional resources related to the EU Emissions Trading Scheme.
Latest EU-ETS News.
NBAA joined other aviation Associations last week in thanking U.S. Secretary of Transportation Anthony Foxx for his efforts at the Assembly of the International Civil Aviation Organization in helping reach a historic global emissions agreement. That agreement reinforced that technology, operations and infrastructure measures, which reduce emissions and benefit the flying public and the U.S. economy, are to remain the primary focus of our efforts. The agreement also confirmed that a globally-agreed, market-based measure could serve as a “gap-filler” should the global industry not be able to achieve carbon neutral growth from 2020. The groups also urged Foxx to “use your good offices and the specific negotiating authority identified in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme Prohibition Act of 2018 (ETS Prohibition Act) to press your European counterparts to continue the stay on the extraterritorial application of the ETS and to stay pending deadlines while the legislation needed to extend the ‘stop the clock’ is being considered.” Read the full letter to Foxx.
A House committee hearing last week focused on aviation planning also provided a welcome opportunity for NBAA President and CEO Ed Bolen to acknowledge the need for continuing congressional engagement on two issues with serious potential ramifications for the general aviation community. In written testimony submitted for before the House Committee on Transportation & Infrastructure Committee's Aviation Subcommittee on "The State of American Aviation," Bolen pointed to the industry's alarm over the FAA's new plan to mandate obstructive sleep apnea screening for some pilots prior to receiving a medical certificate. He also highlighted continuing concerns over the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS). Read more about Bolen's testimony.
The European Union continues to move forward on its proposal to “stop the clock” for implementing its Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) on non-EU operators, with a final vote on the moratorium anticipated within the next three weeks. But for operators whose travels take them from one point to another inside Europe, the clock will not stop. Implementation of EU-ETS will take place as scheduled on April 30. The one-year moratorium was suggested in a surprise announcement by EU Climate Commissioner Connie Hedegaard last November. Citing progress made by ICAO in work toward a worldwide system of market-based measures aimed at reducing the aviation industry’s carbon output, Hedegaard promised to re-evaluate the moratorium after the ICAO triennial assembly in October. Listen to this week’s edition of NBAA Flight Plan podcast or read more about the status of EU-ETS.
December 3, 2018.
President Obama on Nov. 27 signed into law S. 1956 – the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) Prohibition Act. The law sets into motion a process whereby the Secretary of Transportation is able to prohibit operators of U.S. civil aircraft from participating in EU ETS. Also mandated is the requirement that government authorities take actions necessary to hold U.S. operators harmless from the imposition of the unilaterally imposed environmental tax. While the law does not have an immediate effect, passage of the bill is a welcome development following the European Commission's recent announcement of a temporary and conditional suspension of the ETS law for certain operations. أعرف أكثر.
19 نوفمبر 2018.
Developments in Washington, DC and Brussels last week have had a significant impact on the European Union's Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) as it is applied to aviation. While certainly not a one-two knockout combination to the greenhouse gas reduction program adopted by the EU’s 27 member nations, the past week's events are an indication not only of international resistance to the program, but of a new willingness to compromise within the highest levels of the European Union itself. Rising above all of that is the question: Just what do these developments mean for NBAA Members whose business it is to fly to Europe? Learn what it all means to NBAA Members.
In response to Secretary of Transportation Ray LaHood’s testimony June 6 before a Senate hearing regarding the impact from the European Union's Emissions Trading Scheme on operators in the United States, Sen. Johnny Isakson (R-GA) asked LaHood to file a complaint with the International Civil Aviation Organization, and ask the council to intervene on the matter. "I would strongly encourage the Administration to file a formal Article 84 complaint against the EU on this issue in the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)," wrote Isakson. "I believe you would find significant bipartisan support for the complaint in the House and Senate." Read more about Isakson's request.
National Business Aviation Association (NBAA) President and CEO Ed Bolen testified today before a Senate committee that the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) "singles out a great American industry for discriminatory treatment." Calling the European scheme "fatally flawed," Bolen told members of the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation that "as badly as commercial airlines are treated, non-commercial aviation is treated even worse." Read more of Bolen's testimony.
Sen. John Thune (R-SD) recently implored lawmakers to consider his bipartisan bill that would prevent U.S. aircraft operators flying to and from the European Union from being forced to comply with the EU's Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS), saying the measure would cause significant economic hardship to businesses. "Very simply, the unilateral imposition of such a scheme on the United States and other counties is arbitrary, unfair and a violation of international law," Thune said. "Plus, it is being done without any guarantees for environmental improvements and at a huge cost to the aviation industry and constituents we serve." Read more about the proposal.
To say the European Union's Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) is wildly unpopular outside the EU would perhaps be an understatement. Still, NBAA Members are working through the particulars of compliance and finding that, in many cases, the process is very difficult. Nowhere is that more true than in the establishment of a carbon registry account. "Operators are wading into a completely new and foreign process of opening a carbon registry account," said Adam Hartley, a regulatory services team supervisor at Universal Weather and Aviation. In this week's NBAA Flight Plan podcast, learn more about setting up a carbon registry account and NBAA's EU-ETS compliance resources.
EU-ETS News Archives.
What's Involved in the EU's Emissions Trading Scheme and What it Means For NBAA Members.
As is widely known in the business aviation community, general aviation aircraft account for 0.6 percent of U.S. transportation carbon emissions and 0.2 percent of total global greenhouse gas emissions. The industry's continually improving record is thanks to an ongoing focus on the development of engines, aircraft and operating procedures that reduce emissions.
While the industry's record of continuing progress on carbon emissions is laudable, policymakers in the U.S. and around the world continue to closely examine aviation emissions as part of an overall review of all carbon emissions from transportation. This ongoing scrutiny has been prompted and sustained by repeated calls for limitations or reductions in carbon emissions.
Since its formation, the European Union (EU) has been considering options for an environmental program applicable to aviation. EU policymakers have settled on and are moving toward implantation of a plan for aviation known as the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS). The ETS would incorporate all flights by eligible aircraft arriving at or departing from EU airports in the EU ETS. Operator of fixed or rotary-wing aircraft over 5,700 kg (12,566 pounds) who fly to, from or within EU countries (or their territorial possessions) will be included in the EU ETS starting in 2018 (with compliance requirements that must be met prior to the 2018 date). There is an exemption for commerical aircraft operations which have fewer than 243 flights per period for three consecutive four-month periods or commercial aircraft flights with total annual emissions lower than 10,000 metric tons per year.
NBAA believes that environmental stewardship is an imperative, but also that reasonable and balanced policies should be pursued that support the industry’s twin goals of promoting the mobility and growth of business aviation while minimizing its environmental footprint. The Association has worked diligently with the European Business Aviation Association (EBAA), the International Business Aviation Council (IBAC) and European regulators to help shape the rules to make them as workable as possible for business aviation, and the modifications European regulators have made to their original ETS proposal reflect the advocacy efforts from the industry.
While NBAA, EBAA, IBAC and others in the industry will continue to advocate for business aviation on ETS and other emissions policies, the expectation is that the EU's ETS program could apply to all NBAA Members conducting flights into Europe by 2018 unless the ETS is superseded by U.S. regulation (the new Administration and Congress have begun consideration of a U.S. program that may apply to aviation operations, and could impact the application of the EU's ETS on flights by U.S.-based NBAA Members into the EU). Should the European community find such a law a suitable alternative to the EU ETS for U.S. operators, those operators might not need to comply with the EU ETS. However, until that declaration has been made, operators should expect to comply with the EU requirements.
روابط ذات علاقة.
NBAA Flight Plan Podcasts.
June 29, 2009 NBAA Flight Plan Podcast.
NBAA Flight Plan talks with Carl Burleson, the FAA's Acting Deputy Assistant Administrator for Policy, Planning and Environment about where the Agency stands on emissions trading in Europe, and the developments on the EU-ETS mean for NBAA Members. Listen now.
April 27, 2009 NBAA Flight Plan Podcast.
The European Union continues work on a new Emissions Trading Scheme. In the US, Congress considers emissions policies, and a new EPA ruling could impact aviation emissions. Listen now.
&نسخ؛ 2018 National Business Aviation Association.
EU-ETS Reporting Resource Center.
Universal Global Regulatory Services.
About EU-ETS (and who's affected)
In Spring 2009, the European Union announced plans to expand the scope of its Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) to include aviation. In simple terms, EU-ETS for aviation is a mandatory regulation requiring all non-commercial operators who travel into, out of, and between EU Member States, EEA Counties, and applicable EU Territories to monitor their CO 2 flight emissions starting 1 January 2018.
EBAA provides information page for CORSIA – ICAO Carbon Offset System (December 5, 2017) | European Business Aviation Association Website UK moves 2018 surrender deadline up to 15 March 2019 (November 30, 2017) | European Commission Website UK Environment Agency releases November 2017 Newsletter (November 06, 2017) | PDF IBAC release “COUNTDOWN to CORSIA” guide for Business Aviation (October 20, 2017) | PDF Switzerland ETS Launches TKM Requirements – FAQ (Sept. 26, 2017) | PDF Switzerland Federal Office for the Environment Website UK Releases September 2017 Newsletter (Sept. 20, 2017) | PDF European Commission Releases Updated Operator List (February 20, 2017) | European Commission Website European Commission Releases FAQ Guidance, EU-ETS: 2017-2018 (February 3, 2017) | PDF European Commission's Website UK Releases December 2018 Newsletter (December 22, 2018) | PDF EuroControl releases 2018 Update for Small Emitter's Tool (November 11, 2018) | EuroControl Website Post-2018 EU-ETS Review Underway (October 08, 2018) | European Commission Website EBAA Provides Detail on "Historic Decision by ICAO" (October 07, 2018) | PDF EU Commission Welcomes ICAO Agreement for Aviation Emissions (October 07, 2018) | European Commission's Web Site Eurocontrol: Measuring, Monitoring, Mitigating (August 22, 2018) | Eurocontrol's Skyway No. 65 – Autumn/Winter 2018 UK Releases January 2018 Newsletter (January 2018) | PDF New 2018 Annual Emissions Report Template Released (January 2018) | PDF New 2018 Small Emitters Tool released (26 December 2018) | PDF Cost of ETS Compliance Study Available for Operators until 01/08/2018 (December 2018) | PDF UK Releases Dec. 2018 Newsletter (December 2018) | PDF UK Releases June 2018 Newsletter (June 2018) | PDF UK Releases March 2018 Newsletter (March 2018) | PDF EC releases 2018 version of Aircraft Operator List (March 2018) | European Commission's Web site UK releases latest guidance for 2018-2018 reporting (December 22, 2018) | PDF European Commission FAQ for ETS period 2018-2018 (November 2018) | European Commission's Web site UK Releases Latest Newsletter (November 2018) | PDF.
2017-2018 EU-ETS Roadmap to.
EUROCONTROL small emitter tool (updated) Operator lists Templates.
Registering for EU-ETS.
Before reporting for EU-ETS, you will need to register with the European Commission (EC) to be assigned a Member State which administrates your program. Follow these steps below.
Step 1: Apply for/confirm your EU Member State.
What is an EU Member State and how does it relate to your operation?
A Member State of the European Union is any one of the sovereign states that have acceded to the European Union (EU). All operators are assigned a specific EU Member State as their regulatory authority within EU-ETS.
When will you be required to apply for/confirm a Member State?
Within 8 weeks after your first applicable trip to an EU-ETS participating country.
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia (as of July 1, 2018), Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom.
EFTA (European Free Trade Agreement) Countries:
Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway.
Guadeloupe, French Guiana, Martinique, Reunion, The Azores, Madeira, The Canary Islands, Aland Islands, Saint Martin (French), Akrotiri and Dhekelia.
What do you need to do?
Identify if you have already been assigned a Member State.
If your flight department has not yet taken any action in regard to EU-ETS, your first step is to identify if you have already be assigned to an EU Member State. Your assigned Member State has a Competent Authority to which you will regularly report emissions.
Complete history of Operator Lists and Prior Compliance Lists released by the European Commission.
The following lists are provided for historical reference only. To identify your current Member State assignment, please refer to the latest version list(s) provided above.
Notes: Prior Compliance lists show those NEW operators who have been assigned a member state. Operator Lists are comprehensive lists of all operators and their member state assignment.
Are you already on the list above?
If you've already identified your Member State, contact its competent authority to get details about its specific monitoring plans submission process.
If you are already on the list, proceed to this step.
Not on the list?
If you cannot identify your aircraft on any Member State list, you must submit a Fleet List form to the European Commission to be assigned to Member State. To do this:
Access the EU-ETS fleet list form | DOC file format Tips to complete: check the second box, "Representing the below legal person"; Name of Natural or Legal Person (Your Company Operator Name); leave Operator Code blank. Print, sign, scan to PDF, and e-mail this file as an attachment to.
The European Commission will publish an updated Operator List each February on its Web site. Prior to February, the Commission publishes a Prior Compliance List at irregular intervals which specifies new operators being added to the upcoming official Operator List. Check back here for the latest version.
Until your company's name is shown in writing on the Operator List, you are not held accountable to any Member State's deadlines. Do not submit your monitoring plans until you have been designated to a Member State.
Step 2: Submit your monitoring plans to EU Member State.
What monitoring plans must I submit?
Once you have received confirmation of the EU Member State to which you are assigned (see Step 1), you are required to submit the following:
Annual emission-monitoring plan (required) Data-flow chart (required; Emission-monitoring-plan-process flow chart) Tonne-Kilometre monitoring plan (optional)
You must do this within 8 weeks of being assigned a Member State.
What do you need to do?
Contact your EU Member State for procedure and set a timeline for submission.
Your Member State will advise you on process for submitting your plan for approval.
Complete the required annual emissions monitoring plan and data flow chart.
Download blank annual-emissions-monitoring-plan template | XLS View sample small-emitter guidance for completing annual-emissions template | PDF View sample data-flow chart for emissions-monitoring plan | PPT.
Additional assistance in creation of monitoring plans is available through Universal Global Regulatory Service. اتصل بنا للحصول على مزيد من المعلومات.
A monitoring plan submission fee applies (varies by Member State). Beginning with your first applicable trip to an EU-ETS participating country, you should begin monitoring and recording your EU-ETS required data. See next section for details.
Submit plans per the process outlined by your EU Member State.
As process varies from country to country, please contact your Member State for more information.
Once you submit your plans, a reviewer from your EU Member State's environmental authority will contact you to confirm receipt. The reviewer will provide feedback on your submitted plan and advise of any required changes.
EU-ETS Monitoring and Reporting.
After you have registered with the European Commission (EC) and have been assigned a Member State which administrates your program, you are ready to begin your annual emissions monitoring and reporting. Follow these steps below.
Annual aviation-emissions monitoring begins 1 January each calendar year for EU-ETS. Your report must be submitted to your Member State's regulatory authority no later than 31 March of each calendar year.
Carbon credits to offset CO 2 emissions are due by April 30th of the reporting year.
What do you need to do?
Begin tracking your required annual emissions data.
Identify affected trips based on arrival/destination ICAOs that fall within Member States/territories, and capture required datasets for your annual aviation-emissions reporting. See reporting template below.
Calculate your emissions data.
You have two options for the calculation of annual emissions. You can use either estimated fuel consumption using an EC-approved tool or you can use actual fuel consumption.
Universal recommends using the European Commission's small emitters tool for estimated fuel consumption for any operator who qualifies. Before downloading this tool, please read through the guidance on small emitter thresholds.
You do not need to download this tool if you subscribe to Universal's EU-ETS Emissions Reporting Portal, as this tool is already integrated with the portal.
For operators that choose to use actual fuel consumption, there are two calculation options available.
Compile your annual emissions report.
Complete the below template to store calculated CO 2 emissions data for validation and annual reporting:
Submit to your Member State.
Once you have received your completed report, submit it to your Member State no later than 31 March.
Note: Your Member State should have already provided you instructions for submission. If not, you should contact Universal Global Regulatory Services or your Member State for instructions.
Once you have submitted your annual emissions report, you should receive a confirmation of receipt and approval from your Member State.
2017-2018 EU-ETS Roadmap to Success.
for aviation-emissions reporting.
Stay on top of these milestones to ensure your compliance with EU-ETS.
Operators over 1,000 T/CO 2 Threshold (Full Scope) must purchase and surrender Carbon Allowances equal to their Intra-EU emissions.
Operators over 1,000 T/CO 2 Threshold (Full Scope) must submit Annual Emissions Report to Member State.
Determine if you fall above or below the 1000 ton threshold for the 2017 reporting years. If you are below the 1000 tons per year, you are exempt from submitting a report.
If you presume to be near 1000 ton threshold, begin compiling applicable EUROCONTROL invoices or arrange for purchase of AE Report through Eurocontrol Small Emitter Support Facility. Create a QA assessment validating your internal process (which demonstrates your EU-ETS processes are valid for producing accurate data) Login to Universal's EU-ETS Emissions Reporting Portal and validate Operator Information and Flight Data History.
Submit your amended monitoring plan to Competent Authority (if applicable)
For information on aviation-emissions reporting and any compliance issue, call our Regulatory Services Team: